Imam Taqi al-Din Subki

Taqi al-Din al-Subki
أبو الحسن تقي الدين علي بن عبد الكافي السبكي‎‎
Sheikh ul-Islam, Qadi al-Qudat, a famous Shafi'i scholar, hadith master, jurist, Qur'anic exegete and chief judge of Damascus
b.  683  H. (1284 CE) in Egypt - d.  756 (1355 CE) in Egypt

From: Article by David W. Myhram

One of the greatest scholars of his time, equally renowned as traditionist, Shafi`i jurisconsult, interpreter of al-Qur’an, theologian, philosopher, logician and grammarian. He was a student of Ibn `Ata Allah al-Iskandari. Born in Subk in the south of Egypt in 673, studied in Cairo, then taught at the various great schools of learning in Cairo. In 739 H. he was called  to Damascus to take the office of head qadi, an office which he held for 16 years, while teaching at the higher schools of Damascus. His books were considered authoritative, regardless of what science he wrote in.

From: wiki

Taqi al-Din al-Subki was born in the village of Subk in Egypt. He received his Islamic education in Cairo by such scholars as Ibn Rif'a in Sacred Law, al-Iraqi in Qur'anic exegisis and al-Dimyati in hadith. He also traveled to acquire knowledge of hadith from the scholars of Syria, Alexandria and the Hijaz. Eventually he taught at the Mansuriyya school located in the Ibn Tulun's mosque.

Having left Egypt in his youth, al-Subki settled down in Syria where he rose through the ranks to the position of chief judge of Syria, the preacher of the Umayyad mosque at Damascus and a professor in several colleges. He presided as chief judge for seventeen years, at the end of which he became ill, was replaced by his son Taj al-Din al-Subki and returned to Cairo where he died in 756 H.

Imam Subki belonged to the Sunni Ash'ari school of theology and in line with his school strongly opposed anthropomorphism. He also vehemently defended the Ashari view that Paradise and Hell Fire are eternal and to that end wrote a comprehensive treatise entitled "Al-I'tibar".

From: “Tabaqat al-Huffadh”

Imam al-Suyuti said regarding him:
الإمام الفقيه المحدث الحافظ المفسر الأصولي المتكلم النحوي اللغوي الأديب المجتهد تقي الدين أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الكافي بن علي بن تمام بن يوسف بن موسى بن تمام بن حامد بن يحيى بن عمر بن عثمان بن علي بن مسوار بن سوار بن سليم شيخ الإسلام إمام العصر
“The Imam, the jurist (Faqih), the traditionist (Muhaddith), the Hafidh, the exegete (Mufassir), the legal theorist (Usuli), the theologian (Mutkallim), the grammarian (Nahwi), the linguist (Lughawi), the writer (Adib), the Mujtahid Taqi al-Din Abul Hasan ‘Ali bin ‘Abd al-Kafi bin ‘Ali bin Tammam bin Yusuf bin Musa bin Tammam bin Hamid bin Yahya bin ‘Umar bin ‘Uthman bin ‘Ali bin Miswar bin Sawwar bin Salim, the Shaykh al-Islam and Imam of [his] era.”

From: Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Reliance of the Traveller: The Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law Umdat Al-Salik, x345, pg. 1102

‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-Kafi ibn ‘Ali ibn Tamam, Abu al-Hasan Taqi al-Din al-Subki, born in Subk, Egypt, in 683/1284. The Shafi’i scholar and Imam of his time, he was a brilliant intellectual, hadith master (hafiz), Koranic exegete, and Islamic judge who was described by Ibn Hajar Haytami as “the mujtahid Imam whose imamate, greatness, and having reached the level of ijtihad are agreed upon,” and by Dhahabi as “the most learned, eloquent, and wisest in judgement of all the sheikhs of the age.”

Educated in Cairo by such scholars as Ibn Rif’a in Sacred Law, ‘Alam al-Din Iraqi in Koranic exegesis, and Sharaf al-Din al-Dimyati in hadith, he also travelled to acquire knowledge of hadith from the sheikhs of Syria, Alexandria, and the Hijaz after which, as Suyuti records, “he devoted himself to writing and giving legal opinion, authoring more than 150 works, his writings displaying his profound knowledge of hadith and other fields and his magisterial command of the Islamic sciences. He educated the foremost scholars of his time, was a painstaking, accurate, and penetrating researcher, and a brilliant debater in the disciplines. No previous scholar attained to his achievements in Sacred Law, of masterful inferences, subtleties in detail, and carefully worked-out methodological principles.”

Salah al-Din Safadi said of him, “People say that no one like him had appeared since Ghazali, though in my opinion they thereby do him an injustice, for to my mind he does not resemble anyone less than Sufyan al-Thawri.” With his vast erudition, he was at the same time a godfearing ascetic in his personal life who was devoted to worship and mysticism, though vigilant and uncompromising in matters of religion and ready to assail any innovation (bid’a) or departure from the tenets of faith of Ahl al-Sunna. In addition to al-Takmila [The completion], his eleven-volume supplement to Nawawi’s Sharh al-Muhadhdhab [The exegesis of “The rarefaction”], he also authored the widely quoted Fatawa al-Subki [The legal opinions of Sukbi] in two volumes, as well as a number of other works on tenets of faith, Koranic exegesis, and fundamentals of Islamic law, in the latter of which his three-volume al-Ibhaj fi sharh al-Minhaj [The gladdening: an exegesis of “The road”], an exposition of Baydawi’s Al-Minhaj on the methodological bases of legal ijtihad, has won lasting recognition among scholars. In A.H. 739 he moved from Cairo to Damascus, where he was appointed to the judiciary and presided for seventeen years, at the end of which he became ill, was replaced by his son Taj al-Din, and returned to Cairo, where he died twenty days later in 756/1355.