Moroccans of Noble Descent: The Dabbaghs of Fez 

“In a dream related by the Knower of Allah, Abu Abdellah Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellhadidh Dabbagh known as Bou Tarboush, he saw the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) near the Wadi al-Shurafa in Fez. He commanded Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellhadidh to accompany him to Ras al-Janan Gate where they found a large amount of the finest flour. The Prophet asked Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellhadidh his opinion of its quality, and he replied that it was of the finest kind. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) then said to him, "You are the best of my progeny...that is, the Dabbaghs and the Kattanis." (Al-Madhahir al-Samiyya fi Shu'aba al-Kattaniya)
The appellation, “Debbarh, Dabbagh, Debbagh, Al-Dabbagh, AlDabbagh, El-Dabbagh, ElDabbagh, Ad-Dabbagh, Ad-Dab'bagh or Dabbagh" ("Henceforward, Dabbagh", i.e. tanner, relating to tannery) are of the lineage of the Glory of the Knowers, the Key of Treasures, the Founder of Fez, the one the Maghrib takes proud over the Mashriq, the Impeccable Imam, Mawlana Idriss al-Azhar, the son of the Opener of the Far Maghreb, the Impeccable Imam, Mawlana Idriss al-Akbar, the son of the Impeccable Imam of the Enlightened City, Mawlana Abdellah al-Kamil, the son of  the Impeccable Imam, Mawlana al-Hassan al-Muthanna, the son of the Master of the Youth of Paradise, the Impeccable Imam, Mawlana al-Hassan Sibt, the son of the Commander of the Faithful, the Impeccable Imam, Mawlana Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Chieftain of Womankind, the First Pole in Islam, Our Lady, Lalla Fatimah Zahra, the Daughter of the Chieftain of the Universe, the Reason of Existence, the Source of Divine Mercy, the Axis of the Presence of Excellence and Beauty, the Seal of Prophets and Messengers, Sidna Mohammed, Allah’s infinite peace, blessings and salutations be upon him and his righteous progeny – constantly and absolutely.   
When the Fatimid commander Jawhar "the Sicilian" (conqueror of Egypt) sacked Fez in 349/660, the Dabbaghs, along with other Sharifian families, had fled to Andalusia. After the Murabitun replaced heresy with orthodoxy and institute a proper Islamic state in Morocco, and then headed to Andalusia under the Commander of Faithful Yusuf ibn Tachafin, a number of sharifs returned to Morocco including the Dabbagh sharifs. Out of his kindness to them, Yusuf ibn Tachafin offered the Dabbaghs a residence in the city of Salé and the returns of the city’s principle tannery (“Dar Dbagh”). The tanner's corporation was historically one of the oldest and most prestigious artisan groups of Morocco. Their political and economic clout were defined by the importance of tanning and associated trades to the city's economy. Due to the significance of the event and the association of the Dabbagh to the tannery of Salé, they gained the nickname of “Dabbagh”, a surname that permanently passed on to their descendents up till today. 
Descendents of the Holy Prophet—peace and blessing be upon him—through Moulay Idriss lived throughout Morocco, but only some of them  enjoyed special prestige because of their legacy and the ansab literature. The Allama Ahmed al-Shibani al-Hassani documents in his book “Masabih al-Bashariya fi Abna’ Khayr al-Bariyya” (The Lamps of Mankind in the Children of the Best of Creation):  
السادة الأشراف آل الدباغ من ذرية مولانا عبد الرحمن الدباغ بن مولانا القاسم بن مولانا القاسم بن مولانا محمد بن مولانا أحمد بن مولانا أبي القاسم محمد بن مولانا إبراهيم بن مولانا عمر بن مولانا عبد الرحيم بن مولانا عبد العزيز بن مولانا هارون بن مولانا جنون بن مولانا علوش بن مولانا منديل بن مولانا عبد الله بن مولانا علي بن مولانا عبد الرحمن بن مولانا عيسى بن مولانا أحمد بن مولانا محمد بن مولانا عيسى بن مولانا إدريس بن مولانا عبد الله بن مولانا الحسن بن مولانا الحسن بن مولانا علي بن أبي طالب ومولاتنا فاطمة الزهراء بنت مولانا وسيدنا رسول الله عليه وعلى آله سلام الله. وهم من من بني الامير عيسى بن ادريس، المولى من قبل اخيه محمد على شالة وسلا وأزمور وتامسنا وما والى ذلك. ترجم لهم نقيب الاشراف الفقيه أبو الربيع سليمان الحوات في قرة العيون في الشرفاء القاطنين بالعيون. والشريف النسابة القادري في كتاب الدر السني لمن بفاس من اهل النسب الحسني والحسيني و العلامة إدريس بن أحمد بن أبي بكر الفضيلي العلوي الحسني في كتابه الدرر البهية والجواهر النبوية في الفروع الحسنية والحسينية قال في أول ترجمتهم: "وهم من الأشراف الصرحاء والكرام الصلحاء ومن بيوت النسب المذكورين وكبراء الحسب المشهورين." و ترجم لهم العلامة أحمد الشيباني الإدريسي فقال: ﺗﻂﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰﻫﺆﻻء الأشراف عبارة سلسلة اﻟﺬهب لتواتر نسبتهم ﺑﺈجماﻉ العلماﺀ." و ترجم لهم العلامة المحدث المطلع في الأنساب الشيخ عبد الحفيظ الفاسي في معجم الشيوخ عندما ترجم لسيدي إبراهيم الدباغ: "بيت الدباغيين بفاس ممن لهم الشهرة والصراحة في النسب الشريف والاصالة في الفرع الإدريسي المنيف قدر لحظهم الخاص والعام بعين الإجلال والإكرام وأذعنوا لهم في هذا النسب الكريم بالقبول و التسليم وأطبقوا على شرفهم بين سلفهم وخلفهم". و ترجم لهم العلامة النسابة عبد الهادي التازي في الأُصول التاريخية بالمشرق ولآل البيت بالمغرب: "السادة الشرفاء المدعويين بالدباغيين من بني الامير عيسى بن ادريس، المولى من قبل اخيه محمد على شالة وسلا وأزمور وتامسنا وما والى ذلك. وقد سكن الدباغيون بغرناطة على نحو ما كان بعض بني ادريس، سكنوها اختياراً، او اضطراراً ايام الاحداث السياسية.  ثم انتقلوا الى سلا ثم الى حومة العيون من فاس، سموا هكذا لأنهم كانوا يأخذون خراج دار الدبغ بسلا، بأمر السلطان احمد بن سالم المريني". و ذكر السيد الشريف محمد بن على الحسني في كتابة العقود اللؤلؤية:"وهم بيت علم وديانة منهم قديما السيد عباس بن عبد العزيز المالكي مذهباً الدباغ الإدريسي أرسله الملك الشريف الحسين بن علي إلى القدس الشريف وهو أحد علماء مكة في 25 آب 1924 ومنهم المرحوم العالم الرباني والمشهور بالصلاح السيد علوي بن عباس بن عبد العزيز المشهور له بذلك بين أهل مكة ومنهم اليوم العالم القدوة السيد محمد بن علوي بن عباس بن عبد العزيز المالكي مذهباً الإدريسي الدباغ الحسني الهاشمي القرشي وإخوانه أمد الله في عمره وختم بالصالحات أعماله."
“These Sharifs are referred to as “Silsilat al-Dhahab” (The Chain of Gold) on account of the unanimous agreement of all the scholars that their progeny is authentic. They are from the descent of Sidi Isa, the son of Mawlana Idriss al-Azhar. They were based in previous ages in the tribe of Ait A’atab: the headquarters of their grandfather Sidi Isa. And from it they moved to the city of Salé. Then they were joined by their cousins who had fled to Granada in Andalusia. And the first person to enter Granada was Abul Hassan Sidi Ali ibn Abderrahman ibn Isa ibn Ahmed ibn Isa ibn Mawlana Idriss al-Azhar around the year 456/1063.
Their presence in Granada simultaneously took place during the days of the great king Yusuf ibn Tashafin (d. 499/1106) who crossed Gibraltar towards Andalusia and returned glory to Islam. The Dabbaghs (in the person of Abul Abbas Sidi Ahmed ibn Abi al-Qacem), and out of the intoxication of victory, longed for their country and returned with the opening king in 790/1388.    
They were received in the city of Salé with the warmest welcome and were offered endowments that suited their status on account of the Hashemite qualities that characterised them, and they assigned to them [at the order of the Sultan Ahmed ibn Salim al-Marini (according to the Moroccan historian Abdelhadi Tazi, “al-Usul al-Tarikhiya”)], in addition to donations, the returns of the tannery of the city of Salé, which is the reason why they became known as al-Dabbaghiyyin (the Dabbaghs). So they settled in Salé enjoying widespread veneration.       
By the time the heretics and strangers had been defeated in Fez, and the behavior of retroactives had changed, the Dabbaghs longed to return to Fez after the expulsion of the sharifs from it lest the throne comes back to them. Thus the Lord–Exalted is He—made their aspirations come true when they entered the city of Fez in the beginning of 900s (1490s), raising their heads up and lifting their noises with prophetic blood on their cheeks.
And the first house they have settled was located in ‘Hayy Labghal in al-‘Uyuon—a place filled with the sanctuaries of saints and scholar—and this house is still in their property up till today. After their return, they became known as the Salawis (al-Slawiyyine and the Dabbaghs (al-Dabbaghiyyin). And some of them has moved from Fez to Marrakech.       
And the great-grandfather of the ramifications of Fez and Marrakech is Abu Yazid Sidi Abderrahman, the son of al-Qacem, the son of al-Qacem, the son of Mohammed, the son of Ahmed—the one who returned from Granada, the son of Abi al-Qacem Mohammed, the son of  Ibrahim, the son of Omar, the son of Abdellrahim, the son of Abdellaziz, the son of Harun, the son of Jannun, the son of ‘Allouch, the son of Mindil, the son of Abdellah, the son of Ali—the one who migrated to Granada, the son of Abderrahman, the son of Isa, the son of Ahmed, the son of Mohammed, the son of Isa, the son of Mawlana Idriss al-Azhar, the son of Mawlana Idriss al-Akbar, the son of the Imam of the Enlightened City Mawlana Abdellah al-Kamil, the son of Mawlana al-Hassan al-Muthanna, the son of Mawlana al-Hassan Sibt, the son of the Imam Sidna Ali and Our Lady Fatimah Zahra, the daughter of our Master the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing be upon him." (Masabih al-Bashariya)
It is worthy of note that there are, in addition to the Dabbaghs, other families that raise their noble lineage to Sidi Isa ibn Moulay Idriss, namely: the Manalis (al-Manaliyyun) also known as al-Zibadis (al-Zibadiyyun); the Bouzidis (al-Bouzidiyyun) in Sefrou and Fez, among of them, Awlad al-Majdoub; the ‘Ammouris (al-‘Ammouriyyin), descendents of Moulay Omar Sharif Sidi Yacoub ibn Abdellah, buried in Meghraoui near Tlemcen (eastern of present-day Algeria);  Awlad Sidi Isa ibn al-Hassan in Mostaganem, Algeria; Awlad of Abderrahman ibn Mohammed in Melouia and their brethren in Outat el Haj; Awlad Mohammed ibn Yacoub in Tathlit, Eghbalou and Tadli in Souss; the Shurafa of Jazoula and Hatit in Souss; Awlad ‘Arhab banu Wartoumad; the Mashrafis (al-Mashrafiyyun) in Mascara, Algeria and in Oujda; and finlay Awlad ‘Afif in Tlemcen. (Masabih al-Bashariya)   
While the Dabbaghs did live a more settled life in Fez and Marrakech, a number of them moved to the Hijaz to perform the Hajj or take scientific journeys. The Shaykh Abil Qacem ibn Masoud ibn Tayyeb ibn al-Hassan ibn Tayyeb ibn al-Arabi ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1351/1932)—the uncle of my grandfather Moulay El Hassane ibn Jaafar Dabbagh (d. 1398/1978)—belongs the credit of creating a strong family in Jeddah. The Dabbaghs quickly established themselves in Saudi Arabia and became in a short period of time one of the famous households in the blessed country. The hagiographer Mohammed ibn Ali al-Hassani evokes a stark image of the Hijazi Dabbaghs in his book, “Al-‘Uqud al-Lu’alu’iya” (The Glittering Collars):
To the masses who came to share their baraka whether in Fez, Marrakech or Makkah, the Dabbaghs were the possessors of the divine gifts of their Ancestor (peace and blessing be upon him) which will be the means of salvation and deliverance. The fundamental aspect of baraka, which was to become an important aspect of Moroccan Sufism, appears in Moulay Idriss’ known declaration to his companion Dawud ibn al-Qacem:
"O Dawud, what you have seen is what we have inherited from the baraka of our ancestor the Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him and his family) and from his prayers for us and blessings upon us. This [baraka] has passed on as a legacy to our father, the Imam Ali (may Allah honour his face).”
Evidence of the baraka's rights appeared in the Sharifs, and some of them in particular. Evidence of this can be found in the Shaykh Allama Sidi Abd al-Hayy al-Kattani (d. 1962/1382) in his book, "Al-Madhahir al-Samiyya”, page 289, 
“In a dream related by the Knower of Allah, Abu Abdellah Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellhadidh  Dabbagh (known as Bou Tarboush), he saw the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) near the Wadi al-Shurafa in Fez. He commanded Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellhadidh to accompany him to Ras al-Janan Gate where they found a large amount of the finest flour. The Prophet asked Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellhadidh his opinion of its quality, and he replied that it was of the finest kind. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) then said to him, "You are the best of my progeny...that is, the Dabbaghs and the Kattanis." (Al-Madhahir al-Samiyya)
And we read in the Ibriz,
“And I heard my mother say: "Sidi al-Arabi al-Fishtali said: 'I beheld the Prophet—God's blessings and peace be upon him-—and he told me: "A great Friend of God will be born to your sister's daughter." I asked: "Oh Prophet of God, who will be his father?" He replied: "His father will be Masoud Dabbagh."
As was customary at that time, Sultans would honour them with decrees (dahirs) that authenticated their sharifian pedigree and entitle them with tax immunities. Under the Alawis, the Sultan Moulay Ismail (1672-1727) granted them a decree of distinction, which entitled them to exclusively receive the release (futu’hat) of Sidi Abul Hassan ibn Harzihim‘s shrine (d. 559/1144). This is the very shrine his father, the Sultan Moulay Rachid (d. 1087/1672), is buried! It worth noting that the Wise Sultan, the late Great King, Mawlana al-Hassan II has circumcised his son, the then crown prince, the current king of Morocco, the Commander of the Faithful, the Holy Sultan, Mawlana Mohammed VI, inside the same shrine. This privilege was extended by the Alawi sultan, Mawlana Mohammed ibn Youssef ("Mohammed V"; d. 1375/1956) who entitled them with the release of (1) the shrine of the Axial Friend, the Incomparable Master, Sidi Mohammed Harazem, the son of the aforementioned Sidi Abul Hassan ibn Harzihim, located in the village known after his name (10 km outside Fez), and (2) the shrine of the Knower of His Lord, Sidi Ahmed ibn Nasir (d. 1129/1717), the son of Axial Friend, Sidi Mhammed ibn Nasir al-Dar'i (d. 1085/1674 in Tamghurt).
In the old days, the Dabbaghs had shared the donations and gifts given at the tomb of Mawlana Idriss al-Azhar. However, under the Sa'adis, the Dabbaghs, along with their Idrissid cousins, were forced to relinquish their control over their share of this release. It was at this time that they were compensated with permission to receive the donations from the tomb of Sidi Abul Hassan ibn Harzihim, while the rights for various other tombs were assigned to other Idrissid sharifs, such as the Kattanis and the Talibis.     
According to the narrative presented in al-Mazahir al-Samiyya, this change was the result of the arrival in Fez in the 16th century of impoverished descendants of the Idrissid line from Tunisia. Upon the command of the ruling Sa’adi at that time, these poor and destitute families became the new recipients of offerings from the tomb of Mawlana Idriss al-Azhar. While the story may have been true to some extent, the political undertones are clear; they indicate a reconfiguration of the hierarchy of Idrissid families, resulting from Sa'adi efforts to dissipate their power.
Despite the shift in their status, the Dabbaghs continued to enjoy recognition among their peers as saintly figures, men of learning, and mystics. Thus they became a subject of celebration in works composed by well-established hagiographers:    
1. Natijat al-Ta’hqiq fi ba’ad Ahl al-Sharaf al-Wathiq” (The Result of Investigation in Some of the People of Authentic Noble Progeny) of the Allama Mohammed ibn Ahmed al-Misnawi (d. 1136/1723),
2. “Nashr al-Mathani li-Ahl al-Qarn al-‘Hadi ‘Ashar wa at-Thani” (Singing the Praises of the People of the Eleventh and Twelfth Century) of Mohammed ibn al-Tayyib al-Qadiri (d. 1186/1773),
3. “Qurrat al-‘Uyun fi al-Shurafa’ al-Qatinine bi al-‘Uyun” (Consolation of the Eyes in the Sharifs Residing in al-‘Uyun) of the Allama Sulayman al-‘Hawwat (d. 1231/1816),
4. “Al-Qawl al-Wajiz fi Tahdhib al-Ibriz” (The Brief Statement in Summarizing [the Book of] Pure Gold” of the Allama Mohammed ibn ‘Amir al-Tadili al-Fasi (d. 1234/1818),
5. Al-Durr al-Sanni bi-man bi Fas min Ahl al-Nasab al-Hassani wa al-Hussayni” (The Radiant Pearl in the People of Hassanid and Hussaynid Progeny who are in Fez) of Abdessalam ibn al-Tayyeb al-Qadiri (d. 1110/1698),
6.  Al-Ibriz min Kalam Sayyidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh (The Pure Gold in the Sayings of Sayyidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh) of the Allama, Shaykh al-Jama’a, Sidi Ahmed Ibn Moubarak al-Lamti (d. 1156/1741),
7. “Nusrat al-Shurafa fi al-Raddi ‘ala Ahl al-Jafa’” (Victory of the Sharifs in Reply to the People of Aversion) of the Allama Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn al-Mishri Tijani (d. 1224/1828),
8. “Tuhfat al-‘Hadi al-Mughrib fi Raf’a Nasab Shurafa’ al-Maghreb” (Gifts of the Challenging Wanderer in Raising the Progeny of the Nobles of Morocco) of the historian, minister and scholar Abil Qacem Zayyani (d. 1241/1833),     
9. “Al-Ishraf 'ala ba’ad man man bi-Fas min Mashahir Al Ashraf” (The Refinement in the Renowned Sharifs of Fez) of the Allama Mohammed Talib ibn Hamdun ibn al-Haj al-Sulami (d. 1274/1858),    
10. Al-Nur al-Qawiyy fi Dhikr Shaykhina Mawlana Abdelwahid Dabbagh and his Shaykh Mawlana al-Arabi Darqawi” (The Mighty Light in the Recollection of our Shaykh Mawlana Abdelwahid Dabbagh and his Shaykh Mawlana al-Arabi Darqawi) of Mohammed al-Mahdi ibn Mohammed ibn al-Qadi al-Tawdi al-Fasi (d. 1271/1855),
11. “Al-Istiqsa li-Akhbar Duwwal al-Maghrib al-Aqsa”(Investigation in the News of the States of Morocco) of the Allama Ahmed ibn Khalid al-Nasir (d. 1296/1879),
12. "Fahras al-Faharis wa al-Athbat wa Mu’ajam al-Ma’ajim wa al-Musalsalat” (Index of Indexes and Authenticities and Directory of Directories and Serial Hadith-Reports) of the Shaykh Allama Sidi Abd al-Hay ibn Abd al-Kabir al-Kattani,
13. “Al-Shurb al-Muhtadar wa al-Sirr al-Muntasir bi-ma’in Ahl al-Thalih ‘Ashar” (The Sought Drink and the Victorious Secret in the Gushing Water of the People of the Thirteenth Century” of the Allama Jaafar ibn Idriss al-Kattani (d. 1323/1905),
14. Salwat al-Anfas wa Mu’hatatatu al-Akyas bi Dhikr man Uqbir’a mina al-Ulama wa Sulaha bi-Madinat Fas (The Delight of Inhalation and Symposium of Elite in the Recollection of the Doctors and Most Virtuous buried in the City of Fez) of the Allama Sidi Mohammed ibn Jaafar Kattani (d. 1345/1930),
15. "Kashf al-Hijab 'Amman Talaaqa bi-Shaykh Tijani Mina-l As'hab” (Raising the Veil on the Direct Companions of Shaykh Tijani) of the Shaykh Allama Abil Abbas Sidi Ahmed ibn al-Haj al-‘Iyyachi Skirej al-Fasi (d. 1366/1944), “Masabih al-Bashariya fi Abna’ Khayr al-Bariyya” (The Lamps of Mankind in the Children of the Best of Creation) of the Allama Ahmed al-Shibani al-Hassani.
16. Al-I’alam bi man ‘Halla Murrakush wa Aghmat mina’l A’alam” (Notification on the Figures that Entered Marrakech and Aghmat” of al-Abbas ibn Ibrahim al- Muaqqit (d. 1378/1959).
17. Al-Durar al-Bahiya wa al-Jawahir al-Nabawiya fi al-Furu’a al-Hassaniya wa al-Husayniya” (The Brilliant Pearls and the Prophetic Gems in the Hassanid and Hussaynid Ramifications) of the Allama Idriss ibn Ahmed al-Fadhili al-Alawi,
18.  "Riyad al-Jannah” (Gardens of Paradise) of the Allama Abdulhafidh ibn Mohammed al-Taher al-Fasi (d. 1383/1964),   
19.  “Ashar Mashahir al-‘Ailat bi al-Maghrib” (The Most Celebrated Notable Families in Morocco) of the Allama Abdulhafidh ibn Mohammed al-Taher al-Fasi (d. 1383/1964),   
20. Dalil Mu`arrikh al-Maghrib al-Aqsa” (Guide to the Historian of Morocco) of the Allama Abdessalam ibn Abdellqadir Ibn Souda (d. 1400/1980),
21. “Sallu an-Nisal li an-Nidal bil Ashyakh wa Ahl al-Kamal: Fahras al-Shuyukh” (Pulling Out the Sword in Resistance by the Masters and the People of Excellence: Index of Teachers” of the Allama Abdessalam ibn Abdellqadir Ibn Souda (d. 1400/1980),
22. "Al-‘Uqud al-Lu’alu’iya” (The Glittering Collars) of the Allama Mohammed ibn Ali al-Hassani,
23. Silsila-t al-Usul” (The Chain of Origins) of the judge Ali ‘Hashlaf al-Jazairi,
24. Shurafa’ al-Maghrib wa Sula’hauhu” (The Sharifs of Morocco and its Godly Men) of the Allama Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-‘Achmawi,
25. “Al-Usul al-Tarikhiyya li-Aali al-Bayt bi al-Mashriq wa al-Maghrib” (The Historical Origins of the People of the House in the East and in the West) of the historian Abdelhadi Tazi.  
The Rawdah of the Dabbaghs, Bab al-Futuh, Fez
           
     
 
A Word on Bab al-Futuh Cemetery
The vast cemetery of Bab al-Futuh known as Baqi’a Fas, studded with dozens of whitewashed cupolas of saints and hundreds of epitaphs of sharifs and scholars, is located on hill at the southern corner of Fez al-Bali. Most the great scholars of the Qarawiyyine University and some of the great-grandchildern of Sidi Ahmed Tijani are buried here in a place called Matrah al-Janna, and on the summit there is an open-air mosque, a msalla, used for the great feasts of Eid al-Kabir and Eid Saghir. Around the msalla are the koubbas of the Fasis, the Ben Abdellahs, Sidi al-Hassan al-Jazouli, Sidi Ben Achir, Sidi Ahmed al-Yamani, and the Sabatou Rijal, the anonymous seven saints who martyred in the battle of Wadi al-Makhazin. At the lower western corner of the cemetery are the shrines of Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh, Sidi Abdelwahhab Tazi, Sidi Darras, Sidi Hamamouch, Sidi al-Aydi, Sidi al-Ghiyyati, Sidi Abul Qacim al-Wazir and many Tijani Muqaddams. Tombs of Sidi Ali ibn Salih al-Andalusi and his companions stands at Rawdat al-Anwar. Rawdat al-Asrar, on the other hand, contains many Tijani tombs, including: Sidi Mahmoud Tunusi, Sidi Abdelwahhab ibn al-Ahmar, Sidi Moussa ibn Ma'zouz, Sidi Abdelwahid Boughaleb, Sidi Mohammed ibn Ghazi and Sidi Ahmed ibn Ahmed Bannani. At the lower eastern corner of the cemetery is a dome to Sidi Harazem, the teacher of Sidi Boumadyan al-Ghawt. The Sultan Mawlay Rachid’s gravesite is in Sidi Harazem’s. Below the cemetery is the Bab al-Futuh, to the left of which behind the walls stretches the cemetery of Bab Hamra, where the tomb of Sidi ibn Abbad al-Rundi lies. Happy he who was buried in Fez! 
Noted for their cognition, sainthood and authority, from the figures of the blessed family has archived fame in Morocco and beyond:  
1. Sidi Yacoub Dabbagh (d. after 500/1106)
Among of them: Sidi Yacoub Dabbagh was a legendary Sufi saint in Fez. His tomb in the cemetery of Bab al-Charia, one of the gates of Fez. His shrine, already an object of pilgrimage, can be still found amid the cupolas of Bab al-Charia (present-day Bab al-Mahrouq). His feats and thaumaturgic gifts (karamat) has earned him much honour in the court of sultans such as Mohammed Shaykh ibn al-Wazir Yahya, the first Wattasid sultan. The subject's hagiography is found in numerous tomes, including Sidi Mohammed ibn Jaafar al-Kattani’s Salwat al-Anfas, which reads:
“Among of them: the great shaykh, the renowned saint, of abundant spiritual supply and amazing light, Abu Yusuf Sidi Yacoub Dabbagh. He has a great mausoleum outside (Bab al-Charia). A cupola (qubba) has been built above his tomb, whose fame suffices its description. It is sanctified by the people of Fez and held as an object of pilgrimage. They also accredit him with plenty of karamat.
Among of his karamat is what has been reported in al-Rawd on the authority of Sidi al-Mahdi al-Fasi (d. 1109/1694) on the authority of some trustworthy informant, he said: ‘While he was standing over his grave with the shaykh, the saint, Abil Abbas Sidi Ahmed called Shaqrun al-Fakhar al-Andalusi al-Fasi—included among the elite companions of Abil Mahasin Sidi Yusuf al-Fasi (d. 1013/1598)—so he said to him: They said that this man, whoever has been in need of a shaykh and seeks his support, God will unite him with him on account of his baraka.’ The author of al-Rawd comments: ‘Had he was only given this great benefit and enormous bless, it would have still been enough, for it suffices.’
And we read in the rhyme of Shaykh al-Mudarra’ (“Sidi Mohammed al-Najjar al-Andalusi al-Fasi” d. 1147/1735) on the godly of Fez,
And the Shaykh Yacoub, the majestic, the approved,
  who pulled out a glistening sword on the enemies.
Whoever has paid a visit to him seeking a shaykh of the path,
  He will help him with that for sure! 
Bab al-Mahrouq Cemetery, Eastern Fez
I have seen written in the margin of some book: ‘Sayyid Yacoub Dabbaghi, son of Abdellah, son of Ali, son of Abderrahman, son of Isa, son of Ahmed, son of Mohammed, son of Isa, son of Idriss. His shrine stands in Fez. His son is Sidi Mohammed ibn Yacoub. His shrine stands in Tadla.” The end.
And look whether if he refers to the subject of biography, as it now appears to be, which indicates that he is one of the Hassani-Idrissid Sharifs known as the Dabbaghiyyin, of the descent of Sidi Isa, son of Mawlana Idriss, the builder of Fez, God be pleased with both of them, and that he is of ancient times, of the fifth (eleventh) or the sixth (twelfth) century, or he refers by implication to the righteous saint, Abu Yusuf Sidi Yacoub Sharif, buried outside Bab al-Charia, to the right of the Rawda of Sidi Majbar, for I have seen written by some people on the margin of the rhyme of Shaykh al-Mudarra’ on the godly of Fez that he is among of the Shufara’ Dabbaghiyyin.(..)
Attention: I have chanced upon a noble decree of the sultan Abi Abdellah Mohammed called Shaykh, son of al-Wazir Abi Zakaraiya Yahya, son of Ziyan, son of Omar al-Wattasi, the first sultan of Bani Wattas among of the Bani Marin, whom they sworn allegiance to, as it is reported in “al-Jadwah” and other books, in the year 875/1470, and passed away the 27th of Ramadan in the year 910/1504. It reads: ‘We have entrusted the blessed Sharif Sidi Ahmed ibn Ali ibn Abderrahman Sharif with the guardianship of the mausoleum of the shaykh, the righteous saint, Sidi Yacoub Dabbagh, which had been bestowed on his deceased father before him, so that he manages its affairs, takes care of it, be in charge of its endowments and returns, and takes all the what had been taken by the one before him, pursuing therefore the pursue of his father and the one who had been before him.’ It is dated the first of Rajab in the year 910/1504. And God know best.”
 2. Sidi Masoud ibn Ahmed ibn Mohammed Dabbagh (d. 1111/1700)
And among of them: the father of Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Masoud Dabbagh (1132-1679/1132-1717), the Allama Shaykh, , Sidi Masoud ibn Ahmed ibn Mohammed Fatha ibn Mohammed Fatha ibn Ahmed ibn Abderrahman Dabbagh (d. 1111/1700), the student of the scholar, the saint, Sidi al-Arbi ibn Abdelkarim al-Fashtali (d. 1090/1679), himself the novice of the Qutb Sidi Mhammed b. Nasir Dar'i (d. 1085/1670). Sidi Mohammed ibn Jaafar al-Kattani, one of his biographers, said about him in his book, Salwat al-Anfas,
"Among of them: the accomplished blessing, the cordial champion, the grammatician, the linguistic, the jurist, the gallant, noble scholar, Abu Sarhan Sidi Masoud ibn Ahmed Dabbagh al-Idrissi al-Hassani, the father of Renowned Support, Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh. He was—may Allah have mercy on him—a grammatician scholar, a linguistic jurist, a cosmological augmenter, a worker on eccentric sciences, driving into hidden implications and comprehensions. He is the author of a commentary on the Alfiya of Ibn Malik in two volumes present now at the Sultani Library in Higher Fez (Fas al-‘Ulya). He took from the Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdelqadir al-Fasi and others. He passed away—God be pleased with him—in the morning of Wednesday 7 Dhi al-Hijjah, 1111/ 25 May, 1700, and he was buried on the same day next to Sidi Ali ibn Harazem (d. 544/1129), outside his dome, under the window on the entrant’s left side. His tomb is known to some people. It is bald without any epitaph or covering.” 
Shrine of Abul Hassan Sidi Ali ibn Harzihim, Bab al-Futuh, Fez
And in the Ibriz,
“And I heard my mother say: "Sidi al-Arabi al-Fishtali said: 'I beheld the Prophet—God's blessings and peace be upon him-—and he told me: "A great Friend of God will be born to your sister's daughter." I asked: "Oh Prophet of God, who will be his father?" He replied: "His father will be Masoud Dabbagh."
3. Sidi Abdessalam ibn Ahmed Dabbagh (d. 1112/1701)
And among of them: the uncle of Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Masoud Dabbagh (1132-1679/1132-1717), Sidi Abdessalam ibn Ahmed Dabbagh (d. 1112/1701), the brother of the above-mentioned Sidi Masoud Dabbagh. He has been the subject of al-Kattani in his book, Salwat al-Anfas,
“Then in the beginning of Muharram in the year 1112 (1701), his brother, Sidi Abdessalam ibn Ahmed Dabbagh died and was buried next to his aforementioned brother inside the Rawda of Sidi Ali. He was a jurist, of good character, modest, he ate from his hand-making, may Allah be pleased with him.”
4. Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1132/1717)
And among of them: Abu Faris Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Masoud Dabbagh (1132-1679/1132-1717) on whom Sidi Ahmed ibn Moubarak al-Lamti (d. 1156/1741) wrote Kitab al-Ibriz min Kalam Sayyidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh (The Pure Gold in the Sayings of Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh), enjoy a special status in Islamic mysticism on account of the unanimous agreement of all the Sufi paths of his great sanctity and enormous authority.
“The fully actualized pole (al-qutb al-wasil), the complete support (al-ghawt al-kamil), the celestial shaykh (al-shaykh al-rabbani), the eternal solitary (al-fard al-samadani), Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah support us and yourself with his supports” (Sidna Shaykh Abil Abbas Tijani—God be pleased with him). “The great pole, the renowned support, the one who is pointed with the fingers in the west and the east, and whose heart is illuminated by the light of the knowledge of Allah, the possessor of numerous karamat and glorious feats, some of which are transmitted by the author of the book of “The Pure Gold” in this respectable master: Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh—God be pleased with him.” (Sidi Ahmed Skirej—God be pleased with him)
The Ibriz is the chief source for Shaykh Sidi Abdellaziz’ teachings; it was written in 1132/1717 and was first printed in Cairo in 1277/1861. Recent editions include Istanbul (1399/1979, translated) and Damascus (1404-6/1984-6). Sidi Ahmed ibn Idriss al-Fasi (d. 1252/1837) took the Ibriz from Sidi Abul Mahasin Abdelwahhab Tazi (d. 1198/1783) and transmitted it to Sidi Mohammed Sanusi (1274/1859), Sidi Uthman Mirghani (d. 1268/1852) and Sidi Ibrahim al-Rashid (d. 1290/1874); it has since remained an important work for their branches in Lybia, Arabia, Somalia, the Sudan, Malay and many parts of Asia . It has also remained an important text for Shadhilis, Khalwatis, Naqshabandis, and Tijanis, being placed fourth on their list of all-time Sufi classics by most contemporary Sufis, after only Sidi Ahmed Ibn Ata'Allah al-Iskandari's (d. 709/1294) Hikam (Spiritual Aphorisms), Abu Hamid al-Ghazali's (d. 526/1111) Ihya ulum ad-din, and Sidi al-Haj Ali Harazem Berrada al-Fasi’s (d. 1218/1803) Jawahir al-Ma'ani (Gems of Indications). 
It is narrated that Sidi Abdellaziz used to visit the tomb of Sidi Ali ibn Harzihim (d. 559/1144) every Thursday evening. There, alone with others who spent the night in the shrine, he would recite al-Burda, a poem by Sidi Mohammed Sharafuddin al-Busairi (697/1282) written in honour of the Holy Prophet Sidna Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him). One night as he was leaving the shrine, he encountered a man who told him things about himself that he could not have known if he were not a saint. Moulay Abdellaziz asked him to teach him a wird. At first the stranger ignored the request, but after much insistence, the man (later revealed to him as al-Khidr, peace be upon him) agreed, provided Moulay Abdellaziz swore by God that he would faithfully recite the prayer he taught him and never leave it. He told him to pray 7.000 times a day, "Oh God! By the grace of Sidna Mohammed ibn Abdellah, peace and blessing be upon him, I ask you to unite me with Sidna Mohammed ibn Abdellah in this life before the next one."
Sidi Abdellaziz did as he was told and was guided to the Shaykh Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed al-Huwwari (d. 1125/1713). This latter is connected to Sidi Mhammed ibn Nasir Dar’i (d. 1085/1674) through Sidi al-Arbi al-Fashtali (d. 1090/1679); the father-in-law of Lalla Rahma: the mother of our subject. Moulay Abdellaziz is described in the Ibriz how he inherited the divine secrets of his Shaykh Sidi Omar after his death, and shortly thereafter experienced the fath –opening or revelation— an extraordinary experience in which he fell himself expanding until he was able to perceive the entire cosmos and all that was in it. The following day, he encountered a Shaykh from Borno, called Sidi Abdellah al-Barnawi (d. 1129/1714), who had been sent by God to guide him, and three days afterward he had his first waking vision of the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him). At this, al Barnawi rejoiced saying, "Oh Abdellaziz, before today I worried about you, but today, since God has united you with His mercy, the lord of existence, peace and blessing be upon him, my heart is secure and my mind is at ease.” He prayed for him and returned to his own country.
القطب الكبير، و الغوث الشهير، الصوفي الباهر , نجم العرفان الزاهر , صاحب الإشارات العلية , والعبارات السنية , والحقائق القدسية , والأنوار المحمدية و الأسرار الربانية , و الهمم العرشية , منشىء معالم الطريقة بعد خفاء آثارها , ومبدىء علوم الحقائق بعد خبو أنوارها , الشريف الحسيب الوجيه النسيب , ذي النسبتين الطاهرتين , الجسمية و الروحية , والسلالتين الطيبتين الشاهدية و الغيبية , والولايتين الكريمتين الملكية و الملكوتية , المحمدي العلوي الحسني , قطب السالكين , وحامل لواء العارفين , من يشار له بالأصابع في المغرب و المشرق، و من قلبه بنور المعرفة بالله مشرق، صاحب الكرامات العديدة، و المناقب المجيدة التي أشار إلى بعضها مؤلف كتاب الإبريز في هذا السيد الجليل سيدي عبد العزيز الدباغ رضي. هذا القطب الغوث طراز فريد من أقطاب المغرب الحبيب ، حار فيه العلماء وأنكره بعضهم وطقطق له الجهابذة منهم الذين يعرفون من هو هذا العارف بالله والدال عليه. ومما زاد في ولايته الكبرى أنه كان رضي الله عنه عاميا أميا ، منحه الله تعالى من العلوم والمواهب والخصائص والمزايا ، جعلته قبلة العارفين وملجأ علماء الأمة ، أخذ عنه فطاحل علماء القرويين ، كتلميذه سيدي أحمد بن المبارك الذي الف كتابا في شيخه يعد من أنفس كتب القوم "الإبريز من كلام سيدي عبد العزيز الدباع". وقد انتقد البعض هذا الكتاب ، وكاد ان يكذبوه وبما جاء فيه من أقوال الشيخ القطب الغوث سيدي عبد العزيز الدباغ ،قدس الله روحه ورضي الله تعالى عنه، ومنهم من أنكر وجوده وأنه غير معروف سوى في كتاب ابن المبارك.. ولكن خاب رأيهم فهو الشريف الحسيب القطب الرباني فريد زمانه وشيخ وقته ، يدرس كلامه في أطهر وابرك جامعة اسلامية عبر التاريخ ألا وهو مسجد القرويين المبارك ،وأخذ عنه العارف سيدي عبد الوهاب التازي شيخ سيدي أحمد بن ادريس المشهور رضي الله عنهم ،وكذا العلامة الصوفي سيدي محمد بن عبد العزيز المرابط السجلماسي رضي الله عنه وغيرهم..
The beginnings of the Shaykh is depicted in Kitab al-Ibriz written by his student the faqih Sidi Ahmed Ibn Moubarak al-Lamti. The book introduces the Shaykh in following beautiful fashion:
"When God—praise and gratitude unto Him— bestowed on me the blessing of meeting the perfect Friend (wali), the abundant Helper, the splendid Sufi, the luminous star of divine knowledge (‘irfan) possessor of the sublime intimations (isharat) and the exalted explicit expressions (‘ibarat), the sanctified higher truths and the Mohammedan lights, the Lordly secrets and the aspirations associated with the Celestial Throne: establisher of the signposts of the Path (tariqa) after its traces had been concealed, revealer of the sciences of higher truths after the extinction of their lights: Sharif and of noble birth, eminent and of distinguished descent, endowed with two pure kinship relations, the physical and the spiritual, and two good family origins, the manifest and the invisible, and two high-ranking offices of guardianship (walayatan), a worldly and a celestial one: descendant of Mohammed, Ali and Hassan: Pole (Qutb) of those travelling the mystic path, bearer of the banner of the knowers of God (‘arifun), our Shaykh, our lord, our master, Abdellaziz, the son of our lord and master Masoud (..) al-Idrissi al-Hassani al-Fatimi al-Alawi.
Yes [when God bestowed on me this blessing], I came to witness his sciences, his divine insights (ma’arif), his good qualities and fine subtleties, and they overwhelmed me and dazzled me and led me along so completely that I was captivated. I heard from him regarding (he lord of creation and the banner of witnessing, our ford and master Mohammed—God's blessings and peace be upon him—knowledge about his awesome degree and his noble rank such as I've never heard from any human being since I came into existence, nor have J seen it recorded in a written work. Some of it you'll read about—if God the Sublime so wills—in the course of this book. And the people who are most knowledgeable about Mohammed—God's blessings and peace be upon him—will be most worthy of him on the Day of Judgment.
I also heard from him knowledge about God the Sublime and the loftiness of His attributes and the awesomeness of His names, such as can't be described and can't be sustained; it's only graspable as a gift from the Sovereign Creator. And I heard from him knowledge about the prophets of God the Sublime and His noble apostles—upon them be the most excellent blessing and the purest peace—which only be knew as if he'd lived with every prophet in his time and been one of the people of his day and age.
I also heard from him knowledge (ma’arifa) about the noble angels and the diversity of their kinds and the differences between their awesome ranks, and I'd thought human beings couldn't attain such science ('ilm) or advance to that level. And I heard from him knowledge about the heavenly books and the shari’as brought by prophets in previous ages and times gone by, such that if you heard it you'd be of the firm opinion and assert mat he was the prince of the knowers of God and chief of all the Friends of God of his era.
And I heard from him knowledge about the Pinal Day and all it will contain in the way of gathering and dispersal, the narrow path (first) and the scales, and the resplendent ease, such that were you to hear it you'd know he speaks from witnessing and direct vision, and reports on the basis of experience and divine knowledge (‘irfan). Thus, by then I was certain of his awesome Friendship with God (wilaya) and I attached myself to his most protective person, remarking: “Praise be to God Who has guided us hither, for we wouldn't have been guided if God hadn't guided us” (Quran 7:43).
Now, it's the wish of every believer to have knowledge of the above-mentioned matters; therein is his profitable and advantageous transaction, indeed, our lord Gabriel—blessings and peace be upon him—asked our lord and master Mohammed—blessings and peace be upon him—what comprised true faith. Mohammed replied: That yon believe in God, His angels and His books. His apostles and the Pinal Day, and in predestination, the good and bad of which comes from God. Verily, the person most acquainted with these matters is the best of people with respect to faith, and most perfect in divine knowledge (‘irfan). For this is the shining track and the path whose dawn sends forth light—God give you success.'
And I met him—praise be to God—during the month of Rajab in the year 1125/July-August 1713. I then remained in his company and under the banner of his love, listening to his forms of divine insight (ma’arif) which are too numerous to be counted. Meanwhile, God the Sublime didn't cause me to record any of his words, but I went On listening to his words and understood them, and I mentioned them to some of my friends and a select few of my companions. Everyone who heard his words was amazed by them and said: 'We've never heard divine insights like these!’ Their amazement was increased even further by the fact that the author of these insights—God be pleased with him—was formally unschooled (ummi) and hadn't pursued religious learning. Indeed, he was among those who've completely turned away from religious learning, as far as appearances are concerned. And everyone of them who heard something f he said) experienced a feeling of delight for one or two days, or for one or two weeks. Whenever I encountered them or they encountered me, they'd ask me: 'Have you [recently] beard any of his divine insights or subtle instructive points (fawaid)?' And I'd tell them what I could, and this caused their love and amazement to increase.
If not for fear of being tedious, I'd name those who heard his words from me and experienced a feeling of delight Indeed, anyone who was informed of their names would realize the rank of our Shaykh—God be pleased with him—because of their reputation among the people for Friendship with God, and the extreme respect and veneration they enjoy, as well as the frequency of their intercourse with the godly and the Friends who are knowers of God, and the length of their perfect association with them through the heart, love and the mind. Thus they've come to know the secrets of Friendship with God, the qualities of the devoted disciples (mu’hibbin) and the traits of the knowers of God, along with the virtues of the sincere and the states of the rightly guided guides—this in addition to their being among the greatest religious scholars (‘ulama) and most eminent jurists (fuqaha).
And when they heard from me some of the sayings of our Shaykh—God be pleased with him—they ordered me to continue my devoted association (ma’habba) with who's reached the goal!' In sum, no one heard his words without immediately accepting them in full. And you'll become aware of him and they said: 'By God, he's the perfect Friend and knower of God from what you read in the present book—if God the Sublime so wills—through His grace and His generosity!
When it was Rajab of the year 1129/June 1717, God—He is blessed and sublime—inspired me—unto Him be praise and gratitude—to write down some of his instructive sayings so that benefit from them might be disseminated and profit he had. Thus I compiled some of what I'd heard during the months of Rajab and Sha'ban. Ramadan, Shawwal and Dhu'l-Qa'da. And behold, this filled nearly fifteen notebooks! I realized that were I to record what I'd heard over the last four years, it would fill more than two hundred notebooks. 'Not being recorded is a blight upon knowledge.
And know—God give you success—that everything I've written down is no more than a few drops from an abounding ocean that has no bottom and has no shore. Its waves buffeted one another and I was sprinkled with some of their drops—God give us profit through them—and these were the drops that had I recorded them would fill more than two hundred notebooks. As for the sciences contained within the Shaykh's breast—God be pleased with him—only the exulted Lord Who's distinguished him with them is capable of counting them. God the Sublime give us success in what He wishes and what pleases Him, and bring about our felicity through the good He has preordained. (..)"
The Sufi school of Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh spread in the Maghrib and Arabia through his indirect student: Sidi Ahmed ibn Idriss al-Fasi, the pupil of Abul Mawahib Sidi Abdelwahhab Tazi (d. 1198/1783). Among the karamat of Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh that occurred with Sidi Abul Mahasin Abdelwahhab Tazi is the following:
“Among of those that he had met in his beginnings is the Renowned Pole, Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah be pleased with him; he had been privileged to encounter him frequently, seek his blessing, take from him, and attain many acts of grace from him. One day, he met him in al-‘Aqba al-Zarqa in Fez, he kissed his hand and bowed his head to earth in silence. The Shaykh said to him: ‘O son Abdelwahhab—for he was his son through breastfeeding; his wife breastfed him when he was young—do you want to see the Messenger—peace and blessing be upon him? ‘Yes,’ he replied. Then he said to him, ‘Raise your head and have a look!’ And there was the Messenger—peace and blessing be upon him—and Abu Bakr as-Siddiq—may Allah be pleased with him—with him!”
The doctrinal transmission (silsila) or spiritual pedigree of Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh is very special. Unlike the authentic orders of Sufism which possess a silsila tracing the succession of shaykhs back to the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him), a condition that is indispensable for the transmission of the initiatic divine secret, Sidi Abdellaziz’s silsila went directly to his Ancestor the Holy Prophet—peace and blessing be upon him.
In the words of Ibn Idriss,
“We took the Way from the succor of his time and imam of his age, the exalted shaykh, our lord and master, Abdelwahhab Tazi, then al-Fasi, where he was born and grew up. He took it from the succor of his time and imam of his age, the Hasani Sharif, our lord and mas­ter, Sidi Abdellaziz, known as Dabbagh (and) al-Fasi, where he was born and grew up. He took it from the shaykh of shaykhs, die universal sage (al-fard al-jami’), Sidi Abul Abbas Ahmed al-Khadir.” (Sidi Ahmed ibn Idriss)
Al-Sanusi explains,
“This is among the most exalted of the short sanads because al-Khadir, on whom be peace, met the Prophet, may God bless and grant him peace, during his lifetime in the same way as all the Companions took from the Prophet. Likewise Sayyid Abdellaziz  took from the Prophet in (the same way as all the successors (at-Tabi’un of the Companions) took on the authority of the Companions who were contemporaries of the Prophet, may God bless and grant him peace, and so on. Thus the intermediaries between us and the Prophet, may God bless and grant him peace, are four.”
5. Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed ibn Idriss ibn Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1260/1844)
And among of them: Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed ibn Idriss ibn Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1260/1844). His biographers are many: the Allama Mohammed Talib ibn Hamdun ibn al-Haj (d. 1274/1858) in his book, “Al-Ishraf 'ala ba’ad man man bi-Fas min Mashahir Al Ashraf” (The Refinement in the Renowned Sharifs of Fez), the Allama Jaafar ibn Idriss al-Kattani (d. 1323/1905) in his book, “Al-Shurb al-Muhtadar wa al-Sirr al-Muntasir bi-ma’in Ahl al-Thalih ‘Ashar” (The Sought Drink and the Victorious Secret in the Gushing Water of the People of the Thirteenth Century”, the Allama Sidi Mohammed ibn Jaafar Kattani (d. 1345/1930) in his book, Salwat al-anfas wa mu’hatatatu al-akyas bi dhikr man uqbir’a mina al-ulama wa sulaha bi-madinat Fes (The Delight of Inhalation and Symposium of Elite in the Recollection of the Doctors and Most Virtuous buried in the City of Fez), and of course the spokesman of the Tijani Path, the Shaykh Allama Abil Abbas Sidi Ahmed ibn al-Haj al-‘Iyyachi Skirej (d. 1366/1944) in his books, “Kashf al-Hijab 'Amman Talaaqa bi-Shaykh Tijani Mina-l As'hab” (Raising the Veil on the Direct Companions of Shaykh Tijani) and “Raf’a al-Niqab ba'ad Kashf al-Hijab 'Amman Talaaqa bi-Shaykh Tijani Mina-l As'hab” (Lifting the Curtain after Raising the Veil on the Direct Companions of Shaykh Tijani).
The Allama Skirej set forth a remarkable eulogy of Sidi Omar and his place within the Tijani Path. He goes in his famous book, “Kashf al-Hijab”, to inform the reader of his noble linage, godly championship, and bestows special honor and dignity on his subject by stating that he, among his illustrious ancestors, was a wonder unto himself. As for the eccentric qualities of the Sharif, the Allama Skirej exalts by confessing inability to describe his subject’s perfection: 
"Among of them: the respectable Sharif, the illuminated in heart, the cheerful in chest, the advanced in the highest degrees of glory, the owner of the most expensive pearls of the Guarded Secret: Sidi Omar, the son of Sidi Mohammed, the son of the great pole, the renowned support, who is pointed with the fingers in the west and the east, and whose heart is illuminated by the light of the knowledge of Allah, the possessor of numerous thaumaturgic gifts (karamat) and glorious feats, some of which are transmitted by the author of the book of “The Pure Gold” (Al-Ibriz) in this respectable master: the grandfather of the subject of the current biography (Sahib al-Tarjama), Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah be pleased with him.
 و ترجم له العلامة سيدي أحمد سكيرج رضي الله عنه أيضا في كتاب رفع النقاب بعد كشف الحجاب -الربع الرابع. يقول: "ترجمنا له في كشف الحجاب. و هو من السادات الذين أذعنوا لسيدنا رضي الله عنه، فأحبوه بالقلب و القالب و لم تحجبهم المعاصرة عن رؤية أنواره رضي الله عنه، مع كونه من الذين اشتهر فضلهم من بيت النبوة و الولاية . و قلما أذعن مثله من أولاد الأولياء الذين يتبرك بهم لمن تظاهر من غير بيتهم بالشيخوخة و أشير له بالفتح اعتمادا على ما لسلفهم من المجد المؤثل. و لكن صاحب الترجمة لم تأخذ النفس حظها منه، فاختار لها ما فيه نجاح سعيها. فأخذ عن سيدنا رضي الله عنه طريقته، و لقنه الشيخ قدس سره بعض الأسرار مشافهة . و كان الشيخ يجله غاية، و ينوه بقدره و بقدر جده القطب الشهير مولانا عبد العزيز الدباغ رضي الله عنه. و قد بلغني عن صاحب الترجمة رضي الله عنه أنه بلغه عن جده رضي الله عنه كان يقول: « إن الزمان المستقبـل كثير الظلمة، ولكن أرى في جبين جل الصبيان نورا عظيما يتشعشع من نور الولاية يدل على أن لهم و لنسلهم مقامات عالية بمزايا خصوصية». و كان يحمل ذلك صاحب الترجمة و جماعة من أهل الفتح من أحباب الشيخ رضي الله عنه و غيرهم على أن أولئك الصبيان هم الآخذون عن الشيخ رضي الله عنه مشافهة و على أولادهم، و الله أعلم. اهـ
The subject of the current biography—may Allah have mercy on him—was on his grandfather’s step in assuming good characters and acquiring sublime feats. And despite what Allah has given him of the guarded secret and the stored knowledge with the high esteem and the renowned grace, he was searching with an intense searching for someone he makes him reach the path of full knowledge, as he was propelling himself into a path after a path, not allowing himself to reside in it notwithstanding its delusion (ghurur-iha) vis a vis what it possessed of esteem. Allah then gave him success with that he had hoped for when the agent of elation (sa’iq as-sa’ada) and attainment called him to the Path of our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, when he heard of him.
Thus he wrote to our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, and asked him permission in his Path after meeting him before that, and he approached him with all what might please his heart. Our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, replied to him with a letter which I copied from his handwriting from someone whom is trustworthy, which reads: 
“Praise be to Allah Alone. And may peace of Allah be upon our Master Mohammed and upon his Family. After praising Allah, may His Majesty be exalted, His Greatness is Immense, His Power is elevated, His Glory and Grace are sanctified!
This letter is meant for our master: the authentic Sharif, the glorified and noble man, Sidna Omar, the son of Mohammed, the son of the fully actualized pole (al-qutb al-wasil), the complete support (al-ghawt al-kamil), the celestial shaykh (al-shaykh al-rabbani), the eternal solitary (al-fard al-samadani), Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah support us and yourself with his supports.
From Allah’s poor servant, Ahmed ibn Mohammed Tijani: may Peace of Allah, as well as His Mercy and Blessing be upon you and your entire family, as well as your children and whoever has joined your protection, whether he is a friend, companion, confidant or a beloved.     
Then: We ask Allah, may His Power be glorified and His Names and Attributes be sanctified, protect you against any kind of trouble and harm; may He bring into you and through you good health, power and delivery from every evil; may He purify your heart and soul, overall and thoroughly, from anything other than Allah; may He bestow upon you eternal standing (wuquf) between His Hands while turning from everything else except Him until you realize your high aspiration and demand. Amen! And may peace and blessing of Allah be upon our Master Mohammed, and upon his Household and Companions.   
Furthermore, you had sent for us, to ask for the remembrance of our Wird, so here am I writing it down to you, which is: Astaghfir-u Allah, 100 times; Salat al-Fatih li ma Ughliq (The Prayer of the Opening of what had been Closed), 100 times, and it is known; then after it comes La Ilaha Illa Allah, 100 times. And the time for that is after the prayer of Subh and after the prayer of Maghrib. Should he labor it after the prayer of ‘Asr, then it suffices to recite the Wird in full during the time of the two times. And the rememberer (al-dhakir) is only bound to the remembrance of these two times. At other times, if he wants (to remember) then shall he remember, to cause more goodness, and if he does not want (to remember) then shall he give up without blame (bi-la ‘haraj).
And the Prayer of Salat al-Fatih li ma Ughliq is: “Oh Allah! Bless our Lord Mohammad: the Opening of what had been closed, the Seal of what had gone before, the Helper of the Truth by the Truth, and the Guide to Your Straight Path. Allah's blessings be upon him and his Family. May (this prayer be) equal to his immense position and grandeur.” 
Should he be occupied at work, and feels it heavy, let him recite instead: “Oh Allah! Shower your blessing and peace upon our Lord Mohammad and his Family.” (Allahuma salli wa sallim ‘ala Sayyidina Mohammedin wa ‘ala alih.) And it is only (recited) at the time of rushing (waqt al-isti’jal).
And Allah’s Peace, as well as His Mercy and Blessings, be upon Sidi Hamdun ibn al-Haj (d. 1232/1817 in Fez). We ask Allah to write him in the Council of the Happy Ones (diwan al-su’ada’) in this life and the next; may He make him reach the happiness of the next life without much work. Amen. And may peace and utter salutations of Allah be upon our Master Mohammed, and upon his Family and Companions.” The end. 
Sidna Shaykh Abil Abbas Tijani's Letter to Sidi Omar Dabbagh
Our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, loved the subject of the current biography a special love, and used to draw him near to him among of the commoners and the elite. He is one of the elite that attended the carving of the Greatest Name (al-Ism al-A’adham) and its burial inside the Zawiya of our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, in the presence of our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, for the purpose of shielding the companions of our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, and protecting them wherever they may be, as stated earlier. The place where the aforementioned Name was buried, and Allah know best, is the basis of the column that is known as the “Fortunate Column” (as-sariya al-maymuna) inside the blessed Zawiya. It is also called, the “Column of Gold” (sariya-t ad-dahab). Our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, used to sit quite frequently behind it!” (The end from Kashf al-Hijab)
Moreover, the Allama Skirej documents Sidi Omar Dabbagh in the fourth part of his book, “Raf’a al-Niqab ba'ad Kashf al-Hijab 'Amman Talaaqa bi-Shaykh Tijani Mina-l As'hab” (Lifting the Curtain after Raising the Veil on the Direct Companions of Shaykh Tijani). The biography of our subject in Raf’a Niqab steeps in the aforementioned image of Kashf al-Hijab. It tells us, in effect, that Sidi Omar belonged to noble descent and linage of erudition and learning, with Sunni qualities that his life has exemplified: modesty and determination;
“He was our subject in the book of Kashf al-Hijab. And he is from the masters that surrendered to our Master, may Allah be pleased with him. So they loved him by heart and soul, and were not veiled by contemporaneity (al-mu’asara) from seeing his lights, may Allah be pleased with him, despite being among those whose grace gained fame from among the house of prophethood and sainthood. And rarely has his kind from the children of saints (awlad al-awliya) has given themselves over, of those whose baraka is sought, and claimed spiritual mastership (shaykhukha) —outside of their house (i.e. the Dabbaghs)— and were referred to as possessing illumination (al-fat’h) based on their ancestors’ magnificent glory.  
The ego, however, had no share in the subject of the biography, as he chose for her what brought success to her endeavor. So he took from our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, his path, and the Shaykh, may his secret be sanctified, taught him some secrets (asrar) from lip to lip (mushafaha). The Shaykh behaved with much respect toward him and ascribed all the credit to him and his grandfather, the renowned pole, Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah be pleased with him.    
And it has reached me that it had reached the subject of the biography, may Allah be pleased with him, that his grandfather, may Allah be pleased with him, used to say: “The era that is coming in the future is very dark! But I see in the foreheads of most of the children (of Fez) a great light that sparkles from the light of sainthood which indicates that they and their progeny have elevated ranks (ma’qamat ‘aliya) with special virtues (bi-mazaya khususiya).” The subject of the biography and a group among the people of illumination amid the confidants of the Shaykh, may Allah be pleased with him, and others used to articulate that these children are the ones who take from the Shaykh, may Allah be pleased with him, from lip to lip and their children, and Allah know Best!” 
There is another statement in the book of “Al-Ibriz” that goes in with the aforesaid adage of the dear pole, Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah be pleased with him, which reads:
“Whoever looks at the children of the present era knows the goodness of this era compared with the one that is coming in the future. Indeed, most of the lights of the children of this era are of extreme goodness and beauty. And one time we passed by a place and a child came out. He looked at him and asked him: ‘What is your name?’ The child replied: ‘Al-Miqdad.’ He said, Allah be pleased with him, ‘A great friend of Allah is going to emerge from him who will be dear to Allah—He is mighty and glorious!’ And one time, he looked at another boy and said to me (Allama Lamti): ‘Behold the light of the Friendship with God! Look at his sweetness in his face! Look at the Friendship with God in his body! Surely, it is not hidden from anyone.’”
The author of the book of ‘Sawlat al-Anfas’ has this to add about our subject, may Allah be pleased with him, in the context of the saints and the scholars that are buried outside Bab al-Futuh:
“Among of them: the respectable jurist, the renunciant scholar, the noted Baraka, Abu Hafs Sidi Omar, the son of the celebrated Baraka, the one who is tolerant and decorous, Abi Abdellah Sidi Mohammed, the son of Abi al-‘Ala’ Idriss, the son of the Shaykh, the Pole, Abi Faris Mawlana Abdellaziz Dabbagh, the Hassani Idrissi in linage. He was—may Allah have mercy on him—a wellborn and impartial jurist, participant in scientific councils. He studied Fiqh under a group of Fasi shaykhs, among them: Abu Mohammed Abdellqadir ibn Shaqrun. And under Shaykh Hamdun ibn al-Haj (d. 1232/1817), he was introduced to many scientific fields. He was assigned as the Imam and Khatib of the mosque of the Diwan during the reign of the Sultan Abi al-Rabi’ Mawlana Sulayman.  Then he abandoned the post and renounced it of his own will after he contacted and gave himself up to the Shaykh Abil Abbas Ahmed Tijani. He passed away—may Allah have mercy on him—on the 14th of  Rajab, 1260/ July 29, 1844, and was buried in the shrine of his aforementioned grandfather, inside his cupola. His life and career are introduced in “Al-Ishraf” and other books.”
6. Sidi Mohammed ibn Sidi Omar ibn Sidi Mohammed ibn Sidi Idriss ibn Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1285/1870)
And among of them: the Malamati Shaykh Sidi Mohammed, the son of Sidi Omar Dabbagh—one of the elite of the elite among the companions of Shaykh Sidi Ahmed Tijani, may Allah be pleased with him.  He studied under his father Sidi Omar Dabbagh, Sidi Mohammed Salih ibn Khayrullah al-Radwi al-Bukhari and others, and was known for his sharp clairvoyance (kashf). Amongst the thaumaturgic gifts (karamat) that people ascribe to him as mentioned in Abul Abbas Sidi Ahmed Skirej’s “Tijani al-Ghawani fi Sharh Jawahir al-Maani” (Crowns of Melodies in Commentary of the Jewels of Indications) is informing the people of Fez of the exact time and place of the funeral of Abu Abdellah Sidi Chamharouch—the Jinni Companion of the Holy Prophet and one of seven kings of jinns. Fez is one of several places where Sidi Chamharouch lived for a while, making it the focus of a popular regional pilgrimage.  
يقول العلامة سيدي أحمد بن الحاج العياشي سكيرج رضي الله عنه في كتاب تيجان الغواني في شرح جواهر المعاني: المقصود الآن هو التعرض لما ترجمنا له هنا من كون الخليفة سيدي الحاج علي حرازم تلقى عن الصحابي الجليل أبي محمد شمهروش الجني بالإذن الخاص من الشيخ رضي الله عنه له في الإجتماع به.. و بيان السر في عدم روايته عنه إلى الزمن الأخير، و لم يحفظ عن الصحابة قبل هذا الصحابي رضي الله عنه، و ما قيل في ترجمة هذا الصحابي، والكلام على من نفى صحبته، وما قيل في وفاته. فقد قيل أنه توفي زمن العارف بالله سيدي عبد القادر الفاسي، وشاع خبر ذلك عندما أخبر أهل عصره بذلك. والحق إن شاء الله أن هذا الصحابي لم يمت إلا بعد ذلك وقد سمعت من سيدنا الوالد رحمه الله أن هذا الصحابي توفي في حدود عام 1270هـ، تزيد بيسير أو تنقص، طبق ما أخبر بوفاته في اليوم الذي توفي فيه من حضر لجنازته، وهو الشريف البركة الملامتي الشهير سيدي محمد الدباغ الملقب بأبي طربوش، المتوفى بالوباء صبيحة يوم السبت 15 محرم عام 1285هـ، ودفن بضريح جده القطب الشهير سيدي عبد العزيز الدباغ رضي الله عنه، فقد كان صاحب أحوال غريبة، وللناس فيه اعتقاد كبير، وقد طاف يوما بأزقة فاس مخبرا بوفاة هذا الصحابي، ويحض بنفسه الناس على الحضور لجنازته بالمقطع المعروف خارج باب الشريعة من مدينة فاس، فخرج كل من له اعتقاد فيه، حتى أن بعضهم أخبر بأنهم سمعوا رجة الجن الحاضرين في هذه الجنازة، و من لم يكن له اعتقاد في هذا السيد اتخذ ذلك من قبيل الخرافات، ولم يصدق بذلك، و الله أعلم بحقيقة الأمر
For early Sufis in both the Muslim East and the West, Sidi Chamharouch most commonly appeared as the Supreme Spiritual Authority of Jinn. He has been an important Sufi figure in Morocco with at least one hundred houses spread across the country including one in Arremdt, Imlil, 60 km south of Marrakech. The final outcome of this process is observed in the life and career of the author of Kitab Jawahir al-Maani, the Holy Link, Abul Hassan Sidi Ali Harazem Berrada (d. 1218/1803)—the Supreme Caliph of the Shaykh Sidi Ahmed Tijani. “One of the things that show how particular he is stems from his encounter with the companion of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, the judge Abu Mohammed Chamharouch, may Allah be pleased with him, who was a king of the Jinns. The latter passed down to him, with the permission of our Master, may Allah be pleased with him, Hizb al-Sayfi, in a clear voice as was the case among the elite of the companions.” (Kashf al-Hijab)
7. Abil Hassan Sidi Ali ibn Sidi Mohammed ibn Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed ibn Sidi Idriss ibn Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh
And among of them: Sidi Ali, son of Mohammed, son of Sidi Omar Dabbagh—one of the elite of the elite among the companions of Shaykh Sidi Ahmed Tijani, may Allah be pleased with him—a scholar, jurist, trustworthy witness. He is one of the sufi masters that established the Naqshbandiya path in Fez. He disclosed the Naqshbandi secret, together with the Shadhili remembrances and litanies, to many famous scholars, including: the Musnad of the Madina Munawwarah, Abul Hassan ibn Dhahir al-Watri al-Madani al-Hanafi (d. 1322/1904), Sidi Mohammed ibn Allal Ibn Jalun (d. 1298/1880). He was buried in the cemetery of his grandfather, the Pole Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh, may Allah be pleased with him, in Bab al-Futuh. He was succeeded by his son Sidi Habib Dabbagh.
8. Sidi al-Habib ibn Sidi Ali ibn Sidi Mohammed ibn Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed ibn Sidi Idriss ibn Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1326/1726)
And among of them: Sidi al-Habib ibn Sidi Ali ibn Sidi Mohammed ibn Sidi Omar ibn Mohammed ibn Sidi Idriss ibn Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1326/1726). He was a subject of his student the Allama Abdulhafidh ibn Mohammed al-Taher al-Fasi (“One of the teachers of Abil Abbas Sidi Ahmed Skirej;” d. 1383/1964), in his book “Riyad al-Jannah” (Gardens of Paradise),
“The subject of biography—God profit through him—was from the notables of the city of Fez, of its big names, and that of a ruling house in it, of classic glory and gnosis and righteousness, of original kinship, signs of righteousness appeared on his face, if you see him you will realise in the first instance that he is from among the Friends of God, aged, filling his time with remembrances and setting prayers upon the Messenger—peace and blessing be upon him, concerning himself with his affairs, fleeing from mixing with people despite their veneration to him, he was served, of lofty grandeur, the origin of origins, the majesty of majesties, of pure soil, open-handed,  he did not fear that the Owner of the Throne will limit His goods. 
Rawdah of the Dabbaghs, Bab al-Futuh, Fez
He initiated me the wird of his grandfather Mawlana Abdellaziz—God profit through him—and numerous remembrances that he received from al-Khidr—peace be upon him.  He also initiated me a number of names (asma’), properties (khawas) and secrets (asrar). He gave me permission in Dalail al-Khayrat and all what is associated with it. He reports the latter [remembrances] on the authority of his father, the knower, the master, Abi Abdellah Mohammed ibn Omar, on the authority of his father, the aforementioned Shaykh, Abi Hafs, from his father, the master, Abi al-‘Ala’ Idriss, on the authority of his father, the renowned Shaykh, Abi Faris Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh, expect Dalail al-Khayrat, which his grandfather Abu Hafs reports on the authority of al-Fadil al-Alawi, on the authority of al-Hilali, and which his father Abu Abdellah Mohammed ibn Omar reports on the authority of Sidi al-Haj at-Taghmurti, on the authority of Shaykh Abi Hamid al-Arabi ibn al-Mu’ati al-Sharqawi, on the authority of Mohammed ibn Abi Qacem al-Sijlimasi, on the authority of Abil Abbas al-Hilali.     
He passed away around the year of 1326 (1726). He was buried inside the cupola of his grandfather, the Lord Abdellaziz in the Domes outside Bab al-Futuh in Fez—God rest his soul and profit through him.”
9. Sidi Mohammed ibn al-Hadi Dabbagh (d. 1284/1867)
And among of them: Sidi Mohammed ibn al-Hadi Dabbagh (d. 1284/1867). He was one of the major Sufi figures of the family in his age. Very little is known about his life, education, or public career. Salwat al-Anfas only summarises that he was the main Muqaddam of the Qadiri Kunti path in the city of Fez. He took it from the Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Dahhou, who had it from the Shaykh Sidi Mohammed, from his father the Shaykh Sidi Mohammed al-Kunti—God benefit through him. He died—God have mercy on him—in Jumadah al-Thania 11, 1281/ October 9, 1867. He passed away in his zawiya at La’youne, near the shrine of the Shaykh Sidi Ali ibn Abi ad-Diyab—God be pleased with him.
10. Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh known as Bou Tarboush (d. 1291/1876)
And among of them: Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh known as Bou Tarboush (d. 1291/1876). The Shaykh was so reputed as a sharif, scholar, and saint. Al-Kattani, his principle biographer, states that the Holy Prophet—peace and blessing be upon him—and his four companions appeared to him in daylight. He had also verbal communications with al-Khidr—peace be upon him—in daylight. Contemporary to the Tijanite Shaykh, Sidi Mohammed al-Arab ibn Sayeh (d. 1309/1891 in Rabat), he took the Sufi way from different Shaykhs, including: Sidi Ahmed al-Tadili Sajjdali, Sidi Abdelqadir al-Alami (d. 1265/1850 in Meknes), Sidi Tayyeb ibn Mohammed al-Kattani, and Sidi Ahmed al-Ghawn. However, he only experienced illumination at the hands of his ancestor Mawlay Idriss al-Azhar, who conferred on him the dhikr, and after being asked to authorize him to build a zawiya, he told him, "O son Mohammed Dabbagh! Don’t build a zawiya. Let the universe be your zawiya! There exist many zawiyas and few could heal!”  
Al-Fasi produces the following linage of our subject:
“He is Sidi Mohammed Bou Tarbouch, son of Abdulhafidh, son of Abderrahman, son of Abdelhadi, son of Abderrahman, son of Mohammed, son of Mohammed, son of Ahmed, son of Abderrahman, son of Abdellaziz, son of Haroun, son of Mohammed, son of Hayyun, son of Yacoub known as ‘Allouch, son of Abdellah known as Mindil Ali, son of Abderrahman, son of Isa, son of Ahmed, son of Mohammed, son of Isa, son of Idriss, son of Idriss, son of Abdellah al-Kamil, son of al-Hassan al-Muthanna, son of al-Hassan al-Sibt, son of Mawlana Ali and Mawlatina Fatima—God be pleased with him and peace be upon them—the Sharif, the Hassani, the Idrissi, known as al-Dabbagh.” (Riyad al-Jannah)
Sidi Mohammed Bou Tarbouch had early proof of great learning and also tendency towards Sufism. Al-Kattani described him as ‘our shaykh, our baraka, the righteous shaykh, the helping guide, he who takes to Allah, who intends his Lord in the way of his orientation, the rememberer, the good example, who attained high esteem and grandeur to its highest extent in the sight of creatures and the Creator, the knower of Allah Almighty, Abu Abdellah Sidi Mohammed known as Abi Tarbouch—because he used to put a hat on his head and nothing but a hat, the son of the sharif, the baraka, Sidi Abdulhafidh al-Dabbagh al-Hassani al-Idrissi.” (Salwat al-Anfas) He lectured Hadith at the Zawiya of Sidi Abdelqadir al-Fasi in presence of noted notables, including the Kattanis: Sidi Abdelkabir ibn Mohammed Kattani (d. 1333/1918), Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdelkabir Kattani (d. 1327/1912) and Sidi Mohammed ibn Jaafar Kattani (d. 1345/1930).
“He was—God be pleased with him—from among the greatest knowers and good examples of the righteous, his spiritual states witnessed his sainthood and his words and deeds indicated his gnosis, for he was an illiterate—God be pleased with him—nevertheless, he was able to explain the realities of Sufism and the secrets of Tradition and the Book, and in doing so he came up with what astonished the mind and inspired the intellect to cry out, he appeared as a star that guides in solving problems and removing the veils of difficulties and complexities, he spoke about them in the way of the people of divine opening and definite illumination.
He was a subject of the author of Ishraf under the hagiography of his clan, the Sharifs of Dabbaghs, in his saying, “a righteous, ascetic, credited with divine solicitude and cognitive openings.       
Tomb of Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh Bou Tarboush, Zawiya al-Fasiya 
He had—God be pleased with him—constant visions of the Messenger—peace and blessing be upon him—in daylight and in sleep, as well as the congenial Companions and the saints. Our Shaykh, the Allama, the Baraka, Mawlay Abdellah, son of the scholar, the master, Mawlay Idriss al-Bakrawi al-Hassani, he said: The Sharif Sidi Mohammed Bou Tarbouch said to me, ‘I used to come and see your father every afternoon in the background of the minaret of the Qarawiyyin mosque in order to listen to his recitation of the Quran, which he used to recite it there before the students at that time. One day, I came in from the bottom of the mentioned mosque from the side of the Bab al-Khalwa, then when I reached the big chandelier, I saw there the Messenger—peace and blessing be upon him—and the Four Companions while they were heading towards the back of the aforementioned minaret of the mosque.’ I said to him: ‘Have you seen them in daylight or in sleep. ‘In daylight,’ he said. He continued: ‘I said to him, O Prophet of God, where are you going’?! He said: ‘I want to listen to the Quran from this son of mine!’ And he pointed to Sidi Idriss in the place where he did sit.’ Then he said—peace be upon him—while he was listening to his recitation: ‘This is the way it came down on me.’”  
And he used to affirm his sainthood, and inform of his lofty grandeur and position, and report Allah’s abundant bountiful grace that flow upon him, and mention some of what Allah has bestowed upon him and gave him.
My aforementioned Shaykh reported to me, as well. He said: ‘One day, I said to him, after I heard from him fine words in the meaning of some hadith we were talking about: ‘Are you one of the godly (salihin)?’ ‘Yes,’ he said. Then I said to him: ‘Should I be keen in belief and effective in determination as regards it?’ ‘Yes,’ he answered, ‘be keen in belief and effective in determination as regards it,’ or something this is its meaning. He said: “I saw him after his death in a fine and noble state, robed in beautiful and elegant garment, I have never seen it before. I knew then that he was among of the saints, and among of the confidants.
And he—God be pleased with him—used often to encounter our Master al-Khidr—peace be upon him—as well as our Lord Idriss of Fez (d. 213/798). He used to ask him when facing difficult issues. 
He would have gone to ask him questions when facing difficult issues that he would answer in what heal the chests. Among of that: a group of his companions asked him to build a zawiya where they would congregate around him. He postponed his answer until some time, then informed them that he had seen Mawlay Idriss—God be pleased with him—and asked his permission in that, so he said to him, "O son Mohammed Dabbagh! Don’t build a zawiya. Let the universe be your zawiya! There exist many zawiyas and few could heal!” So he didn’t build a zawiya and kept meeting them in certain mosques, in houses, gardens and places of picnic.
People came to him to take care of their important needs, which were allowed to be fulfilled on account of the unseen (ghayb) and effective will (himma). Thaumaturgic gifts (karamat) appeared to him, so did paranormal phenomena (khawariq). Many had studied under him and immense goodness appeared at his hands. He encountered numerous righteous and congenial godly in Fez and beyond. He received their baraka and learned from them and their news. Among of them: the righteous shaykh, the knower, Sidi Abil Qacem ibn Ahmed Tadili Sajjdali, buried at the Musalla of Bab al-Charia; the shaykh, the gross saint, the renowned knower, Sidi Abdelqadir al-Alami , possessor of the great mausoleum in Meknes the Olive; the saint, the knower, Sidi Tayyeb ibn Mohammed al-Kattani, buried at the Musalla of Bab al-Futuh; the most renowned  saint, Sidi Ahmed al-Ghawan, buried in Bab al-Hamra’ inside Bab al-Futuh, to mention very few.     
Nevertheless, he indicated that the supreme illumination he experienced occurred to him at the hand of Mawlana Idriss the Enlightened. He used to extol his worth, pay frequent visits to his threshold, mention him frequently, stress the greatness God bestowed upon him of proximity, great perfections and lofty feats, treat him with reverence, greaten his grandeur, put him at the head of the saints of Morocco, its special ones and scholars, designating in addition that he disposes the affairs of the Far Maghreb in full, and that no one disposes its affairs except through his permission and council and that all its people seek his support (istimdad)—be they solitaries (afrad), pillars (awtad), poles (aqtab) or bondsmen.
And he used to make, before he abided by him, repeated tours around deceased saints other than him, paying constant visits of respect to them and their shrines, resolved to reside at their places.
And it came to pass that the Bukhari was recited for him every year during the three [sacred] months at the Zawiya of Sidi Abdellqadir al-Fasi in the corner to the right of the Mihrab. I was present with him the last year there. We sat down beside him and heard from him words on [prophetic] traditions, verses from the Quran and sayings of the [Sufi] community that astonish the minds. I was a child at that time however and didn’t memorize much of what I heard from him.  
I took the continuous hadith with prophetic handshake (al-hadith al-musalsal bil masafaha al-nabawiya) from him, so he saluted me and shaked my hand at the Idrissid Mausoleum. He was engaged in the remembrance [of God], recitation [of the Quran] and [acts of] worship most of the time, especially during Ramadan. His favourite sitting-places were the Qarawiyyin mosque near the Khalwa and the Mausoleum of Mawlay Idriss near the chair; opposite the fountain, to the left of the direction of Qibla.
I heard from a trustworthy informant that he went out to pay a visit of respect to Mawlay Idriss—God be pleased with him—for 40 days so that God Almighty unites him with the Pole of the Time (Qutb al-Waqt). He said: ‘Forty days after, it happened that I run a shop and I was before that a seeker of learning (talib 'ilm). So no sooner had I [went out to] ascend to it than Sidi Mohammed Dabbagh came and ascended with me to it. Then he sat and said to me: ‘People come to the Qutb and there are among of them whom the Truth Almighty bestows him so the Qutb comes to him!’ He said: ‘I did not realize his words and that he indicated to me that he was himself the Qutb and that he came to me until some time later.’
The same informant told me another story in which the subject of biography came to some people. Some of them told him: ‘O Sidi! I ask you by God to inform me of the whereabouts of the Qutb at this time, or words having this meaning.’ He said to him: ‘[He is] Hawzi’. He said: ‘That man really thought that he was from the people of Hawz [i.e. Marrakech]. Nevertheless, he indicated that the Qutbaniya was under his possession (fi ‘hawzihi) and authority (mulkihi) and that he was its man and God know best!  
(Note that the subject of biography’s contemporary Sidi Mohammed ibn Ahmed Akansus Tijani was the Qutb of that time, he was entrusted with the Qutbaniya for 18 years and spent the rest of his life in Marrakech in the region of al-Hawz where he died in the year 1294/1877!). 
Epitaph of Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh Bou Tarboush, Zawiya al-Fasiya 
And his hagiography—God be pleased with him—is very wide. He passed away on Tuesday, the 7th of Muharram, 1291 (23 February 1874). He was buried in the aforementioned Zawiya (i.e. Sidi Abdellqadir al-Fasi) at the corner to the left of the Mihrab, to the left of one who gets out from it to the shrine of Sidi al-Haj ash-Shair from the open door.”
11. Sidi Ibrahim ibn Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh Bou Tarboush (d. 1291/1876)
And among of them: Sidi Ibrahim ibn Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh Bou Tarboush (d. 1291/1876). Sidi Ibrahim Dabbagh was also a famous mystic of Fez who died 1291/1876 in his native town. He has been a subject of biography in various encyclopaedias of scholars such as Ithaf al-Malai’a 1/389, Dalil Mu`arrikh al-Maghrib al-Aqsa 2/326, Riyad al-Jannah 1/45. According to Allama Abdulhafidh al-Fasi, he was the spiritual heir of his father, the famous saint Sidi Mohammed Dabbagh known as Bou Tarbouch,
His States: The subject of biography was of elevated grandeur and high glory above all people of his time, a majestic scholar, a Sufi editor, keen to narrate the books of Hadith, biographies (siyar) and Sufi hagiographies especially the Sahih of Imam al-Bukhari which he retailed on Rajab and Sha’aban every year in forty gatherings for a period of forty years at our Fasite Zawiya amidst a celebrated gathering of people of knowledge and grace. Among those who attended was our shaykh the father—mercy be upon him.
The subject of biography was of elastic temperament, pleasant speech, affluent benefit, enlightened face, inseparable from the invocation and worship, shedding tears easily, of humble heart, energetic, restrained, distant from doubt, persistent to clarity, pulling the tails of virtuousness, venerated by the elite and the commoner, modest, affable, in love of the people of goodness, looking for them, being one of them.
His Shaykhs: He took knowledge—God be pleased with him—from a group of shaykhs in Fez and his main teacher was the scholar, the editor, Abul Abbas al-Waryaghli whom we mentioned in our book, Rawdat al-Jannat. He also took from his father Abi Abdellah Mohammed ibn Abdelhafidh. He committed himself to him, and received from him everything he had, and read with him various books of hadith and Sufism, and attended his lessons on Bukhari over 20 times.
He performed the obligatory Hajj and obtained ijazas from Shaykh Dahlan and Shaykh Abul Mahasin al-Qawqaji at-Tarablusi with whom he heard al-Musalsal bi al-Awwaliya after he saluted him and shaked his hand in addition to other Musalsalat (serial hadith-reports) which is given in the text of his ijaza to him which he himself heard from Ibn Sultan al-Bayoumi, al-Bukhari, Sayyid Fadl ibn Alawi, Sayyed Hachim al-Habashi al-Ba’alawi, Sayyid ‘Aydarus ibn Abdellah al-Saqqaf, Sayyed Ahmed al-‘Attas, Hassan al-Dajani al-Yafi, Sli ibn Omar at-Tarablusi, Mahmoud Dusuqi at-Tarablusi, Mohammed ibn Mahmoud al-Jazairi, Abdelqadir al-Kuhan al-Maghribi and Mohammed al-Hachimi ibn Taher al-Figuigui at-Titwani.
He also reports on the authority of the teacher Mohammed ibn Ahmed al-Bahi al-Misri considered to be his highest chain, who reports on the authority of Shaykh Yusuf al-Shabbasi, on the authority of Shaykh Ahmed Sabbagh al-Iskandari with his chains mentioned in his index. He also reports on the authority of al-Bhhi on the authority of Shaykh Abi al-Fayd Murtada and heard the Awwaliya with Abi Mohammed Abdellqadir al-Kuhan, Mohammed ibn Ahmed al-Bahi, Shaykh Abid, Mohammed ibn Mahmoud al-Jazairi al-‘Itabi and Mohammed al-Hachimi ibn Taher al-Figuigui at-Titwani with their chains mentioned in Shaykh Dabbagh’s indices and in our body of Musalsalat. He has also received numerous Musalsalat which are all mentioned in which we have indicated.
He also reports several Sufi paths such as the Shadhiliya, Qadiriya, Rifaiya, Khalwatiya, Naqshbandiya and others on the authority of Shaykh Mohammed ibn Ali Sanusi, Sayyed Yasin al-Mirghani, Shaykh Mohammed Sibai, Sayyid Mohammed al-Bahi and others with their chains mentioned in his indices, including: “al-Ghurar al-Ghaliya fi al-Asanid al-‘Aliyah” (The Precious Blazing Highlights in the High Chains) and a larger one he named, “Ma’dan al-La`i fi al-Asanid al-‘Awali” (Minerafl Gems in the Lofty Chains) to mention just few.  
My Report on His Authority: I heard the Sahih of Bukhari with the subject of biography—God have mercy on him—at our Fasite Zawiya and heard al-Musalsal bi al-Awwaliya wa al-Musafaha through his father and al-Mushabaka through al-Qawqaji. And he said to me, ‘I love you’ (inni u’hibbuk) while he was grasping my beard with his hand on the day of Ashura.
I received from him the Qadiri-Kunti, Shadhili and Rifai litanies, the Idrissid Names, the Great Subtle of Ibn Hajar, the name of ‘al-Salam’ based on the numerical representation of its letters according to a certain method he illustrated to me, and gave me permission in all what it contains of names and remembrances and in the tradition of the aforementioned Musalsalat recorded at the Fahrasa of al-Qawqaji, and gave me a general ijaza.
And his ijaza took place upon hearing some of what had been mentioned in the morning of Sunday, the 25th of Jumada al-Uwala 1223/1808 by the door opposite to the Mihrab of the Zawiya of our Grandfather Abi al-Su’ud Abdellqadir and upon hearing some part on Sunday, the 8th of Muharram 1224/1809, during which he wrote me at the blurb of the index of the Shaykh Abil Mahasin al-Qawqaji called al-Ghurar al-Ghaliya fi al-Asanid al-‘Aliyah  the ijaza which he wrote him, which reads:
‘Praise be to Him Who has certified whoever He had chosen along the straight path. And peace and blessing be upon His Confidant among His creation, the possessor of the proper religion, and upon his household and compassionate companions, may this blessing and peace continue forever. And then: When the reverent scholar Sidi Abdelhafidh al-Fasi thought that I was entitled to give (him) an ijaza—and I confess that I am not among the men of these routes—[I hereby declare that] he has taken from me, received of me, and heard al-Musalsal bi al-Awwaliya with me, and I have given him an ijaza in al-Asanid al-‘Aliyah and what it contains. I have greeted him, and shaked his hand, and gave him an ijaza in the contents of this book according to the proper condition of the people of narration (ahl al-athar). May God overflow His lights upon us that which would enable us to reach the Chosen Presence. May Allah bless, grant peace and blessings to our Master Mohammed, the light of lights and the overflower of secrets, whenever those who remember mention him and those who neglect his mention neglect it. He said it with his mouth, and wrote it with his pen, the bondman of his Lord, Ibrahim ibn Mohammed Dabbagh, may Allah be by his side. Amen.”
His Death: He died—God be pleased with him—on Wednesday, the 4th of Dhu al-Qadah, 1329 (October 26, 1911). He was buried in the Rawdah of Awlad Ibn al-Bashir at Ras al-Qali’a (inside Bab al-Futuh next to Bab al-‘Hamra). At his great funeral, people turned out in great numbers and were extremely sorry for his loss. May God have mercy on him!” (Riyad al-Jannah)
Among of his prominent students: the Allama Sidi Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Amrani (d. 1370/1950), his sons the Allama Sidi Ibrahim (d. 1291/1876) and the Allama Sidi Abdellqadir, his nephew the famous saint Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh known as “Hazz” (d. 1321/1906), the Shaykh Sidi Abdelkabir ibn Mohammed al-Kattani (d. 1333/1918), his son, the Shaykh Tariqa Sidi Mohammed al-Kattani (d. 1327/1912), the Shaykh Sidi Jaafar ibn Idriss al-Kattani (d. 1323/1908) and his son the great Allama, the author of Salwat al-Anfas, Sidi Mohammed al-Kattani (d. 1345/1930).  
12. Sidi Idriss ibn Ali Dabbagh (after 1189/ 1775) 
Among of them: the Knower of Allah, the famous Allama, the dangerous Shaykh, Sidi Idriss ibn Ali Dabbagh, buried in Cairo. He was the student of the Allama, the Shaykh, the Sharif, Abu al-‘Ala’ Moulay Idriss Nasih. Al-Kattani describes him in Salwat al-Anfas as, “The aged Sharif, the virtuous Baraka, the detached worshiper, the devoted ascetic, Abu al-‘Ala’ Moulay Idriss Nasih.” Concluded he, “And he is the shaykh of the Shaykh Sidi Idriss ibn Allal Dabbagh buried at the Qafafat of Cairo on the Naqshbandi road. He is his grandfather from his mother side! He passed away—God be pleased with him—in the morning of Friday, the 6th of Jumada al-Thani in the year 1189 (3 August 1775), and was buried inside the mausoleum of Shaykh Abil Mahasin.”    
The Qarafa, Cairo, Egypt 
13. Sidi Abdelwahid ibn Allal Dabbagh known as al-Qassar (d. 1271/1856)
And among of them: the knower of Allah, Sidi Abdelwahid ibn Allal Dabbagh known as al-Qassar (d. 1271/1856). The author of Salwat al-Anfas describes him as, 
“The great saint, the renowned Sufi, the profiting trainer, of numerous students and followers, Abu Malik and Abu al-Mawahib, Sidi Abdelwahid ibn Allal ibn Idriss, the Hassani-Idrissi Sharif, known as al-Dabbagh.”
He was first buried inside the shrine of Sidi Ali al-Jamal in the district of al-Ramila before his companions moved his corpse to a separate lodge in the district of al-Siyyaj near Sawiqat ibn Safi, a walk from the zawiya of Sidi Ahmed ibn Nasir (d. 1129/1714). Contemporary to Sidi Mohammed ibn Abi Nasr Alawi (d. 1273/1856 in Fez), Sidi Abdelwahid Dabbagh took from many shaykhs, including: Sidi Mohammed ibn Bakkar, Sidi Abdellqadir ibn Abi Jida al-Fasi, Sidi Mohammed ibn Ibrahim—the Muqaddam of Darqawa in Fez—and later from the Shaykh Moulay al-Arbi Darqawi (d. 1239/1824), the pupil of the Sharif Sidi Ali al-Amrani known as al-Jamal (d. 1193/1778). 
Sidi Abdelwahid had many doctors and jurists as students, including: the Allama Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed ibn Abdelhafidh Dabbagh known as Bou Tarboush; the Allama Sidi Mohammed al-Mahdi ibn Ahmed Tawdi al-Abbasi a-Fasi known as Ibn al-Qadi (d. 1855/1271), the author of the book, “al-Nur al-Qawi fi Dhikr Shaykhina Mawlana Abdelwahid Dabbagh wa Shaykhihi Mawlana al-Arabi Darqawi” (The Mighty Light in the Recollection of Our Shaykh Mawlana Abdelwahid Dabbagh and his Shaykh Mawlana al-Arabi Darqawi”; the Allama Sidi Abu Bakr ibn Mohammed Bannani (d. 1284/1869), the founder of the Bannaniya-Dabbagiya-Darqawiya branch in Rabat and one of the esoteric teachers of the Thunder of Morocco, the Knower of Allah, Sidi Abd al-'Hayy al-Kattani. The Bannaniya became more popular at hands of his son Sidi Fath Allah al-Bannani (d. 1353/1934), whom the Spokesman of the Ahmedi Tijani Path, Abul Abbas Sidi Ahmed  Skirej (d. 1363/1944) described with al-Qutbaniya in an epistle he forwarded to him, which he called, Risalat al-Thana’ al-Ahmedi at-Tijani 'ala Madhhar al-Fath Mawlana Shaykh Fath Allah al-Bannani” (In Praise of the Manifestation of Illumination: Our Lord the Shaykh Fath Allah al-Bannani). 
14. Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh known as “Hazz” (d. 1321/1906)
And among of them that gained fame with sainthood and authority amid the elite and the commoners in the city of Fez is the Knower of Allah, the Sober Sufi, the Pulled by God, the Noted Malamati, the venerated Shaykh, Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed ibn Abdulhafidh Dabbagh known as ‘Hazz’. He was the companion of his maternal uncle Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdulhafidh known as Bou Tarboush (d. 1291/1876) and Sidi Mohammed al-Gharisi. It is enough to mention that the Allama Abil Abbas Sidi Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Amrani (d. 1370/1950) and the Allama Sidi Mohammed ibn Jaafar Kattani (d. 1345/1930) took him as a master. In his autobiography, “al-Nubdah al-Yasira al-Nafi’a al-lati hiya li-Astar Jumla min Akhbar al-Shu’aba al-Kattaniya Rafi’a,” the aforementioned Shaykh al-Kattani tells us that he began to teach at the Qarawiyyin University at the order of Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed Dabbagh. Ibn Souda also mentions this in his book “Sallu an-Nisal”,
“Mohammed ibn Jaafar ibn Idriss ibn Mohammed al-Zamzami ibn Mohammed al-Fudayl al-Kattani al-Hassani: the Shaykh, the Imam, the figure of figures, the evidence, the participant, the master of numerous sciences especially tradition, biography, jurisprudence, origin, hagiography of men, the authentic reporter, the effective teacher, the prolific writer, the Tijani in Path. (…) And the one who ordered him to start teaching was the Shaykh Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed Dabbagh known as ‘Hazz’.”
Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed Dabbagh was a great lover of Ahl al-Bayt, especially the Kattanis of Fez. The finest wheat I have ever seen was being ground at the Kattaniya Zawiya,” explained he after he experienced a dream. Soon after, he run into Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdelkabir al-Kattani in the street of Ibn Sawwal neighbourhood where the Kattanis resided. The encounter helped Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed Dabbagh realized the meaning of his dream. For some time previously, he had believed that God had forsaken the Muslims. “But now,” said Dabbagh, God offered them guidance “by the hand of al-Kattani.” Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Ahmed Dabbagh died in 1321/1906 and was buried at his house in Borj al-Dahab next to Wad al-Shurafa at the district of Laqlaqliyyin.   
15. Sidi Abu Abdellah Mohammed ibn al-Hadi Dabbagh (d. after 1283/1850)
And among of them: Sidi Abu Abdellah Mohammed ibn al-Hadi Dabbagh (d. after 1283/1850). According to Salwat al-Anfas, our subject was the supreme Muqaddam of the Kuntiya path in Fez. He took it from the Allama Sidi Mohammed ibn Ahmed Ibn Da'hhu (d. 1283/1850), who had it from the renowned Shaykh Sidi Mohammed al-Kunti, the son of the famous Qutb Abil Abbas Sidi al-Mukhtar al-Kunti. They buried him in the zawiya he built for himself and his companions in the district of al-'Uyun, next to the shrine of Sidi Ali ibn Abi Diyab—a contemporary, people say, of the Qutb Mawlay Abdellqadir al-Jilani of Baghdad).
16. Moulay Tayyeb ibn al-Hassan Dabbagh
And among of them: our great-grandfather Moulay Tayyeb ibn al- Hassan Dabbagh, one of the elite scholars of Fez, the father of our grandfather Sidi Jaafar Dabbagh and his cousins: Abul Qacem ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1351/1932 in Marrakech) and Sidi Mohammed ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1340/1925). He is the supreme great-grandfather of the Dabbaghs of Hijaz.  
 
    
    
17. Sidi Mohammed ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1340/1925)
And among of them: The uncle of our grandfather Moulay al-Hassan Dabbagh (d. 1398/1978), son of Sidi Jaafar, son of the Allama, the Faqih, the Shaykh, Moulay Tayyeb. The book of “Index of Teachers” of the Allama Abdessalam ibn Abdellqadir Ibn Souda (d. 1400/1980) is a must-own for anyone seriously interested in biographies of Moroccan scholars in the beginning of the twentieth century. We may get an inside picture of Morocco’s most distinguished scholars, jurists, judges, and poets through this book, including five members of the Dabbaghs. Among of them is the Allama Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1340/1925).
“Mohammed ibn Masoud Dabbagh al-Hassani, one of the Dabbagh Sharifs of Fez, the jurist, the Sufi, of goodness, the rememberer, the worshiper, the righteous, the dignified, the remaining of the Salaf. He took from Shaykh Mohammed ibn al-Madani Genoun, Shaykh Ahmed ibn Ahmed Kala, and Shaykh Abdelmalik al-Alawi ad-Darir [the three of whom were Tijani Muqaddams in Fez], and others. He busied himself with worship (‘ibada) and night prayer (tahajjud). He is the author of various rhymes (andham) and poems composed in rajaz (urjuzas) of which a rhyme in the Sufi paths, commented by the Shaykh Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Amrani (d. 1370/1950) in a commentary he called, “Sa’d Shumus fi Makarim al-Akhlaq wa Qam’ an-Nufus” (The Blissful Suns in Good Characters and Suppression of Lower Egos). I called him often, and he used to pray for me with goodness whenever I met him. He passed away—God have mercy on him—in the year 1340 (1925) and was buried in their Rawdah in the copulas (of Bab al-Futuh).”
18. Sidi Abul Qacem ibn Masoud Dabbagh (d. 1351/1932)
And among of them: The uncle of our grandfather Moulay al-Hassan Dabbagh (d. 1398/1978), son of Sidi Jaafar, son of the Allama, the Faqih, the Shaykh, Moulay Tayyeb. The historian Ibn Souda describes him as “the renowned scholar, the cultured traveler, the Prophet’s lover.”
Abul Qacem ibn Masoud ibn Tayyeb ibn al-Hassan ibn Tayyeb ibn al-Arabi ibn Masoud Dabbagh, of the Dabbagh Sharifs in Fez, the participant Allama, the well-versed Muhaddith, the actor by his knowledge, the moving toward his God, the follower of Sunnah and righteous guidance. He went on the pilgrimage to Makkah, and stayed there for a while, where he married and had a family of his own, some of its members later became outstanding scholars. Then he returned to Morocco for some urgent reason and continued to tour throughout capital cities of the country until he passed away in Marrakech. He took from many scholars in Fez before his journey, the names of whom I do not remember at this moment. He also sought the baraka of the men of the Mashriq. (…) He passed away—God have mercy on him—in the 4th of Muharram, 1351/ the 9th of May, 1932 in Marrakech and he was buried there, leaving his children in Jeddah.” (Sallu an-Nisal)
19. Sidi Jaafar ibn Tayyeb Dabbagh  
And among of them: The Allama, the Baraka, the Faqih, Abul Hassan Mawlay Jaafar Dabbagh, son of the Allama Shaykh, Moulay Tayyeb, the father of our grandfather Moulay al-Hassan Dabbagh (d. 1398/1978). 
20. Sidi Abbas ibn Abdellaziz al-Maliki Dabbagh (d. after 1343/1924)
And among of them: Sidi Abbas ibn Abdellaziz al-Maliki Dabbagh, of the scholars of al-Madina al-Munawwara. The Dabbaghs are one of the most respected families in Mecca and has produced great scholars who taught in the Haram of Mecca for centuries. In fact, five among of the members of the Dabbaghs have been the Maliki Imams of the Haram of Mecca. Sidi Abbas al-Maliki was the Mufti and Qadi of Mecca and the Imam and Khatib of the Haram. He held this position during the Ottoman, then Hashemite times, and continued to hold it after the Saudi Kingdom was established. The late King Abdellaziz ibn Saud had great respect for him. He was succeeded by his son Sidi Alawi Dabbagh.  The hagiographer Mohammed ibn Ali al-Hassani narrates in his book, “Al-‘Uqud al- Lu’alu’iya” (The Glittering Collars): “And they are (the Dabbaghs) a house of knowledge and religiosity. Among of them, in previous times, Sayyid Abbas ibn Abdellaziz Dabbagh, the Maliki in law, the Idrissid in progeny. The Sharif of Makkah, Hussein ibn Ali sent him to the blessed city of Jerusalem in the 25th of Muharram, 1343/ the 25th of August, 1924. And he is one of the scholars of Makkah.” His son Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh is buried in Fez (see below). 
21. Sidi Mohammed ibn Idriss Dabbagh 
And among of them: Sidi Mohammed ibn Idriss Dabbagh. His epitaph in Bab al-Futuh describes him as, "the righteous saint, the sharif, the knower of Allah, Sidi Mohammed ibn Moulay Idriss Dabbagh. He is buried next to the Allama Moulay Abdellqadir Dabbagh, son of the aforementioned saint, Sidi Mohammed Dabbagh Bou Tarboush buried at the Zawiya al-Fasiya. Moulay al-Hassan b. Moulay Abdellqadir b. Sidi Mohammed Bou Tarboush  (d. 1360/1941) is also buried nearby. 
  
22. Sidi Abdellaziz ibn Abbas ibn Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1375/1956)
And among of them: Sidi Abdellaziz, son of the aforemantioned Sidi Abbas, son of Sidi Abdellaziz al-Maliki Dabbagh, is one of the greatest saints among of the Dabbaghs. He was born in Jeddah in 1318/1901 and died in Fez in 1375/1956 where he was buried in Bab al-Futuh next to his forefathers.
  
23. Sidi Mohammed ibn al-Hassan Dabbagh (d. 1371/1952)
And among of them: Sidi Mohammed ibn al-Hassan known as al-Murrakushi (d. 1371/1952). A short biography of Sidi Mohammed al-Faqih ibn al-Hassan appears in Ibn Souda’s book, “Sallu an-Nisal”.  He describes his subject in the following terms,
“Mohammed ibn Mohammed ibn al-Hassan Dabbagh al-Murrakushi known as “al-Faqih ibn al-Hassan, a participant scholar, a memorizer and well- versed teacher. It has reached me that he was about to reach the Shaykh al-Jama’a of his time in the city of Marrakech. His teaching and instruction skills were evident from an early age. And I do not know of his biography and teachers more than that. I have often met with him in Marrakech and in Casablanca at the house of the brother, the scholar, the well-versed, the teacher, Sidi Mohammed al-Mokhtar Susi (d. 1383/1963). I have talked to him and he has talked to me and I have learned a lot from him. I have sought his baraka, and he prayed for me with goodness, and praised the members of my family and their service to knowledge. And it seemed that his age exceeded 80 years. He passed away—God have mercy on him—on Monday the 29th of Rabi’ al-Thani, 1371(January 26, 1952) and he was buried in Bab Aghmat.”
24. Sidi Alawi ibn Abbas Dabbagh (d. 1390/1971)
And among of them: the renowned scholar, the great knower of his Lord, Abul Fadl Sidi Alawi ibn Abbas al-Maliki Dabbagh, one of the greatest scholars of Mecca in the previous century. He taught the various traditional Islamic sciences in the Haram of Mecca for nearly 40 years! He also learnt at the feet of prominent scholars of Makkah such as Shaykh Amin Kutbi, Shaykh Hassan Masshat, Shaykh Muhammad Nur Sayf, Shaykh Saeed Yamani and many others. Hundreds of students from all over the Islamic world benefited from his lessons in the Haram and many hold key religious positions in their lands today. The late King Faisal would not make any decision regarding Mecca without consulting Sidi Alawi. He passed away in 1390/1971 and his funeral was the biggest funeral seen in Mecca in a 100 years! For the next three days after his death, the local Saudi radio stations played the holy Quran only. This was something that was only done for him.
25. Moulay al-Hassan ibn Jaafar Dabbagh (d. 1398/1978)
And among of them: Our grandfather, Moulay al-Hassan (d. 1398/1978), son of Sidi Jaafar, son of the Allama, the Faqih, the Shaykh, Moulay Tayyeb, a renowned scholar of the Qarawiyyine university. “The first man I ever saw reading a newspaper in Fez was Moulay al-Hassan Dabbagh,” said Professor Abdelhadi Tazi, one of Morocco’s greatest contemporary historians and diplomats. He was married to Lalla Aicha bint al-Barnousi Lahlou (d. 1403/1983). She bore him two sons: Abul Hassan Sidi Abdellaziz (my father) and Moulay Tayyeb, and two daughters: Lalla Khadija (d. 1420/1999) and Lalla Shama. Our grandfather was the Naqib of the Dabbaghs in Fez and was responsible for the shrines of Sidi Abul Hassan Ali b. Harzihim (d. 559/1144) and his son, the Qutb, Sidi Mohammed b. Ali Harazem (d. 633/1218), buried in the village that bears his name. Upon his death, my father Sidi al-Haj Abdellaziz Dabbagh inheretited all the royal decrees (dhahair) that was in his possession. "And Solomon inherited David" (Quran 27: 6).
26. Sidi Mohammed ibn Alawi al-Maliki Dabbagh (d. 1425/2004)
And among of them: the scion of the Dabbaghs of Mecca, Sidi Mohammed ibn Alawi al-Maliki Dabbagh, son of the knower of Allah Sidi Alawi ibn Abbas Dabbagh (d. 1390/1971). He was one of the foremost traditional Islamic scholars of contemporary times, and without doubt, the most highly respected and loved scholar of the holy city of Mecca and the entire Hijaz region. He was a leader of the Ahl al-Bayt, the Imam of Hadith in his age, an authority of the four Madhhabs, a spiritual leader of the highest caliber, caller to Allah, and unparalleled in his standing in the world of traditional Islamic scholarship. A visit to him was considered imperative for the scholars who would visit Mecca. Apart from the ‘scholars of the Hijaz he has got Ijazas in the theological and spiritual sciences from eminent savants all over the Islamic world. Shaykh Ahmed Mashur al-Haddad, the Imam of Yemen, Shaykh Hasnayn Makhluf, the great Mufti of Egypt, Shaykh al Ghumari of Morocco, Shaykh Diyauddin al-Qadiri of Madina and numerous others have given him their ‘ijazah.  
In 1389/1970 he was appointed professor of Islamic studies at the Umm-ul-Qurra university in Makkah. In 1390/1971, after his father’s death, the scholars of Makkah asked him to accept his father’s position as a teacher in the Holy Mosque, which he did. Hundreds of students have learnt at his feet and have become savants of Islamic knowledge and spirituality in their countries, particularly Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt, Yemen and Dubai. Since 1403/1983 he has concentrated on research and teaching. He also gives classes at his home and mosque on al Maliki street in the Rusayfa district of Makkah. He wasalso the author of close to one hundred books. He excelled in all the sciences including mysticism. He was first affiliated to the Ba Alawiya path before he embraced the Ahmed Tijani Path, which he took from the great Allama Sidi Mohammed al-Jakani al-Susi (d. 1427/2006), himself the student of the Allama Sidi al-Hassan al-Baaqili (d. 1363/1948), the student of the Qutb Sidi al-Hussayn al-Ifrani (d. 1328/1910).  
27. Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellaziz Dabbagh known as “al-‘Azizi” (d. 1428/2008)
And among of them: Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellaziz Dabbagh known as “al-‘Azizi” (d. 1428/2008). Our Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Erradi Genoun describes him as, “The Sharif, the Allama, the Ustadh, Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellaziz Dabbagh—after his ancestor, the righteous saint, the Qutb Sidi Abdellaziz Dabbagh (d. 1132/1717)—is one of the best contemporary figures. A historian, author, poet, researcher, he is also the general custodian of the library of the Qarawiyyin University in Fez. He is the author of valuable publications and researches as well as numerous articles most of which have been published in the Moroccan-based Da’wat al-‘Haqq Magazine. And he is one of the in laws of the Sukayriji family.” In fact the Allama, the Shaykh, the Spokesman of the Tijani Path, Abil Abbas Sidi Ahmed Skirej (d. 1366/1944 in Marrakech) has married his sons Sidi Abdelkarim (d. 1403/1983 in Casablanca) to Lalla Habiba Dabbagh, the daughter of our subject. She bore him five boys: Sidi Abdelhay, Sidi Mohammed Ali, Sidi Ahmed Rida, Sidi Al Makki and Sidi Tayyeb, and five girls: Lalla Oum Kalthoum, Lalla Zaynab, Lalla Chahrazad, Lalla Aicha and Lalla Halima. 
28. Al-Haj Sidi Abdellaziz ibn al-Hassan Dabbagh 
Our father Abul Hassan Sidi al-Haj Abdellaziz Dabbagh is one of Morocco’s prominent figures in football and sports. He was born in 1348/1930 in the city of Fez to Moulay al-Hassan ibn Sidi Jaafar ibn Moulay Tayyeb Dabbagh and Lalla Aicha Lahlou who had Sidi al-Haj al-Barnousi Lahlou and Lalla Khadija Barrada as parents. She was Tijani in path. Sidi al-Haj Abdellaziz played as a midfielder and spent the majority of his playing career with Maghreb Association Sportive de Fes (MAS). First, he started to make an impression with Al-Qarawiyyin University team and established himself as a regular first team player with Al-Taqaddum (the first football club of its kind in Fez) after playing the first Coupe du Trône final against Al-Majd of Casablanca in presense of the then Crown Prince, HM. King El Hassan II, Al-Majd won by defeating MAS 1–0. He ended the season as the leading goalscorer of his team.  
In 1948, 18 years of age, he signed with MAS and continued to play with the club until 1963. During this time, he scored 17 goals direct from a corner and 33 free kicks. Called "The Machine" by French newspapers, he was also an expert in penalty and indirect kicks. In 1954, he won the North African Cup with MAS and traveled to Paris to play against France's Ligue 1 champion. In association with Mehdi Ben Barka and the National Movement, the players of MAS, including Sidi al-Haj Abdellaziz Dabbagh, profited from this opportunity to hand out sheets that demands for the independence of Morocco in Shanzelize. On September 11, 1963 he had a farewell game played at the Hassan II stadium before 50,000 spectators. The game was played between the ex-Moroccan national team with international renowned players against Nice FC of France. 
Sidi al-Haj Abdellaziz was first to introduce football in the neighrhoods of Fez; then he followed it with founding with his colleagues the Free Football League in Fez in a time of occupation. After his retirement from playing in 1963, he became highly successful as manager of many clubs including: MAS, WAF, Hayat, Wafa', Sefrou, and the Army team of Fez. He was also the manager of the football school of the Youth and Sport Ministry in Fez from 1956 to 1997 and the manager of the MAS football club for two decades. His work gave birth to international champions in the size of Said Oauita, Tazi, Hazzaz, Zerhraoui, Gazzar, Moulay Idriss, Atiq, Bounou, al-Ashhabi, to mention very few. Five of his discovered players played in fact with the Moroccan National Team and were deceive to win the African Cup for Morocco in 1976 in Ethiopia. He holds the First Federal Degree in Football and many other degrees in basketball, swimming and athletics. He is the author of three books, two on football and one on coaching. He has also served as a scout leader for 60 years. 
HM. King El Hassan II honored him with two medals for his successful efforts and key role in enhancing the quality of sport in the kingdom. The city of Fez, the press and many organizations continues to this date to express their gratitude for his contributions. Sidi al-Haj Abdellaziz Dabbagh is very well- acquainted with the Dabbaghs of Saudi Arabia. May God outlast his lifetime. Amen.
Among of the contemporary intelligentsia of the Dabbaghs are the following:  
 
Shaykh Sidi Abdullah Dabbagh
Founder of the Dabbagh Holding Group. Born in Jeddah, he graduated from Cairo University in 1946 to become Saudi Arabia’s first agricultural engineer and Minister of Agriculture. Following a highly successful career in industry and government, he went on to found the Dabbagh organization in 1962. Shaykh Abdullah has steered the company from its inception to its present position as a business leader in the Middle East.
 
 
 
 
 
Sidi Amr Dabbagh
Sidi Amr Dabbagh is the Governor and Chairman of the Board of the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA), with the rank of Minister. Since he assumed the position in March 2004, SAGIA has seen the value of investment licenses grow to over 40 times the total since the organization was created in 2000. Under his leadership the Kingdom has seen an increase in its global competitiveness rankings in the World Bank’s Doing Business Report from 67 in 2005 to 13 in 2009 out of 181 countries ranked. He launched the National Competitiveness Center (NCC) in 2005, and also initiated the first ever comprehensive FDI survey in the Kingdom, with concluding data being used to identify and repair investment scenario weaknesses. He has been credited for his quarterly contribution to global business information resources with the launch of THINK Magazine, SAGIA’s quarterly publication.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sidi Abdullah Dabbagh
Dr Sidi Abdellah Dabbagh is a pioneering leader in the economic circles of Saudi Arabia. He has doctorate in geology from the University of North Carolina in 1975. He is president of Ma'aden since its creation in 1997 and leading figure in administration, education, research, and technological development in the Kingdom for over 20 years. Prior to joining Ma'aden, his career was culminated by his effective contribution to establishing the Research Institute at KFUPM. He received several national awards. After being appointed CEO of Ma'aden since its inception in 1997, he developed a management team for the expanding company. Sidi Abdullah has also served as a member of the board of directors at a number of companies. He was a member of the Board of Directors at Saudi Aramco (1989-1996), a member of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Riyadh since 2004, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Arab Business Council (currently). 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sidi Hany Dabbagh
Dr Sidi Hany Dabbagh is the Vice President, Precious & Base Metals SBU and Exploration of Ma'aden. He is responsible for all Ma'aden’s precious and base metals mining operations, including six gold mines and various exploration activities. Over the last 20 years of his career in the mining industry, Dr Hany has been involved with companies engaged in exploitation and sales of approximately 3.5 million ounces of gold generating approximately SR 4.5 Billion. Including resources currently under development by Ma'aden this amounts to approximately 8.5 million gold ounces. Prior to joining Ma'aden he had an active career in the oil industry and in civil engineering. Dr Sidi Hany holds a PhD in Mining Engineering from Leeds University in the United Kingdom and an MSc in Industrial Engineering from King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia as well as a BSc in Civil Engineering from Cairo University, Egypt.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sidi Driss Dabbagh
Sidi Driss Dabbagh was born in November 7, 1921 in Marrakech, Morocco and died in 1986. He was a Moroccan ambassador to Italy (1959-1961) and Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy, and a minister of commerce, industry, mining and merchant navy (from June 1963 to November 1963). He was also vice-president and chairman of Banque Commerciale du Maroc through a private company NAMIRI S.A. of which he held 93% of the shares at the moment of his death. Sidi Driss Debbagh was the son of Sidi Tayed ibn Sidi Brahim Dabbagh and his second wife Zahra bint Mohammed Soussi. He was fluent in Berber, Arabic, French, English and Italian. He lived in France in the end of the 40's and he received a bachelor in chemical engineering in 1950 from L'École Nationale Supérieur des Arts et Industries Textiles de Roubaix, France. He returned to Morocco and became the president of the royal federation of aeronautic sports in 1957, and president of the CJP (Centre des Jeunes Patrons) the same year.
 
 
 
Sidi Karim Dabbagh
A film producer, Sidi Karim Dabbagh was born in 1972 in Tangier, Morocco. In 1997 he went to Germany to study Film Production at the Film Academy Baden-Württemberg. In 2002 he finished his study with diploma. After he worked for a few years as Line producer and Unit production manager in Germany, he returned to his hometown Tangier in 2003. He begins his own film production company, Kasbah Films, which offices in Tangier and Ouarzazate, Morocco and Berlin, Germany. He produced and coproduced already some international films.
 
 
 
Sidi Sharaf Dabbagh
Sidi Sharaf Dabbagh was born in Jeddah, an entrepreneur, author, mentor and speaker on entrepreneurship. He studied in the United States at the Art Center College of Design and the Brooks Institute of Photography. He is the founder of three Dubai-based foundations: Taaheel FZ. LLC, a specialized events, training company, education consultancy; Jedariyat, a specialized in retailing of wall art, framing, Arabic calligraphy, and fine art; Arab Entrepreneurs and Investors group, a group of Arab entrepreneurs and specialized investors interested to share their knowledge, and establish a network with their bears.
 
 
Lalla Heba Dabbagh
Lalla Heba Ghazi Mohamed Ahmed Aldabbagh is among of the Palestinian Dabbaghs who have been emigrated to Cairo since 1948. Her uncle the late Zaki Mohammed Aldabbagh was a deputy minister in cairo, and her father the late Ghazi Aldabbah was holding a secretes bless with. Lalla Heba works as a Legal Consultant at the Jeddah-based Ahmed Zaki Yamani Lawyer’s and Legal Consultants and is a member of Arab Women's Legal Network. She earned a Bachelors Degree in Law from Ain Shams University in 2007. She also holds an Executive Secretarial Diploma from the American University in Cairo in 1991.
 
 
Lalla Wafa Dabbagh
Lalla Wafa Dabbagh is also of the Dabbaghs of Palestine who have been emigrated to Egypt since 1948. She was born in Cairo and was raised in Kuwait. She came to Montreal, Canada in 1990 at the age of 28. Then she went to the United States and studied a Masters program in International Business and Cancer Diagnosis. After she moved to Windsor, Canada in 1996 to be with her sister, she joined the Canadian Armed Forces. She is the first Muslim wearing hijab woman  as a lieutenant-commander in the Canadian Armed Forces.
 
 
Lalla May Dabbagh
Dr. Lalla May Dabbagh is Research Fellow at the Dubai School of Government and Dubai Initiative. In addition, she is the Director of the Gender and Public Policy Program and advisor to the Women and Leadership Development Program. In 2004, she earned a Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Oxford for her doctoral thesis entitled “Working Women in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Stress and Well-Being.” She spent one year as a post-doctoral research fellow at the University of Oxford. She earned her MBA degree from Harvard University, where she graduated in 1999 magna cum laude in Psychology.
 
 
 
Sidi Hashim Dabbagh
Born and grew up in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Sidi Hashim Dabbagh is the manager for McGraw-Hill Educational Services (MHES) in Saudi Arabia. He is also the founder of Jamæōn Consulting, an admissions consulting firm with an uncompromising commitment to quality and a high ethical standard. Based in Saudi Arabia, Jamæōn prides itself on being the only credible admissions consulting firm of its kind in the region. He obtained his BSE degree in Operations Research and Financial Engineering from Princeton University in 2001 and graduated with an MBA from the Harvard Business School in 2007.
 
 
 
 

Sidi Ali Dabbagh

Sidi Ali Mehdi Jawad Dabbagh is the spokesman of the government of Iraq. He was born in July 18, 1955 in Kerbala, Iraq. He obtained his Bachelors of Science in Civil Engineering in Baghdad in 1977, and he graduated with a Masters of Science in Engineering, Environmental Pollution in 1983. In 2003, he earned a Ph.D. in Business Administration in the United Kingdom. For 30 years, he worked in development and management of contracting and trading companies in UAE, Europe, Canada, Japan and the Far East as well as governmental positions. Outside his current position as a spokesman for the government of Iraq, Sidi Ali is a human rights activist, politician and researcher.
 
Lalla Fadoua Debbarh 
She works at the US-based Bank of Trading Analyst-Delta One & Volatility Trading Desks- at Societe Generale. She holds Masters in Finance from the University of California, Riverside and Master of Engineering from the Institut national des Télécommunications.

Sidi Hussein Abdullah Dabbagh
Eng. Sidi Hussein Abdullah Dabbagh, holds a Bachelor degree in Civil Engineering from University of Texas in Arlington , USA. He is a member of the Saudi Engineering Committee, Managing Director of the Consulting and Engineering Bureau. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Dabbagh Holding Group.
Sidi Taieb Debbagh 
Dr. Sidi Taieb Dabbagh is Morocco's Secretary General of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and New Technologies.

Sidi Jamal Abdullah Dabbagh
Sidi Jamal Abdullah Dabbagh, holds a Master of Business Administration degree from King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. He is a member of the Agricultural Committee at Chamber of Commerce Riyadh-Poultry Committee, Member of Saudi Cooperative Association of Poultry Producers and Director of Red Sea Housing Services Company. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Dabbagh Holding Group
Sidi Abdullah Dabbagh
He is an eye physician and hemeopathy legal consultant at Dubai Healthcare City. He is also the founder and medical director at OYOONI and the director and medico-legal consultant at MLConsultation. 
Lalla Hajar Debbarh 
She is the product manager at MDECO Medicine Company. He holds Masters in Marketing from HEC School of Management. 

Sidi Abdelhafid Dabbagh 
Professor Sidi Abdelhafid Dabbagh is Morocco’s Secretary General for Higher Education & Scientific Research. Read Le Matin's interview with Sidi Abdelhafid Dabbagh.  
Sidi Aziz Debbarh 
He works as the Human Resources Associate Director North West Africa at Procter & Gamble. He holds Masters in Marketing from Ecole Centrale de Lyon
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%